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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 7

Group 7: Trees, shrubs, or woody vines; only staminate flowers present; pistillate or bisexual flowers unavailable for examination

1. Plant parasitic on stem of woody host plant ..... VISCACEAE {G6,8,9,11,12,14}

1' Plant free-living, rooted in ground

2. Trunk unbranched, generally stout, covered with persistent woody leaf bases; leaves 4–7 m, pinnately compound ..... ARECACEAE (Phoenix) {G9,10}

2' Trunk(s) generally branched, stout or slender, generally not covered with persistent leaf bases; leaves generally smaller, simple or compound

3. Leaves stiff and sword-like, 0.6–2 m, base much expanded, white, fleshy; inflorescence a large panicle ..... RUSCACEAE (Nolina) {G6,8,9,16}

3' Leaves not sword-like, mostly smaller, base not much expanded, white, and fleshy; inflorescences various

4. Leaves opposite or whorled

5. Leaves compound

6. Leaves palmate ..... SAPINDACEAE

6' Leaves pinnate

7. Woody vine; sepals generally 4, conspicuous, petal-like ..... RANUNCULACEAE (Clematis) {G9}

7' Tree or large shrub; sepals generally 5 or number difficult to determine, very small

8. Flowers sessile or borne on short, stout pedicels ..... OLEACEAE (Fraxinus) {G9,12,16}

8' Flowers borne on elongated, thread-like pedicels ..... SAPINDACEAE (Acer negundo) {G9}

5' Leaves simple

9. Leaf toothed or lobed

10. Leaf palmately veined and lobed ..... SAPINDACEAE (Acer) {G12,23}

10' Leaf pinnately veined and toothed

11. Petals 0; stamens 4–10 ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (4) {G9,12}

11' Petals 5, united in salverform corolla; stamens 4, epipetalous ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Buddleja) (2) {G9,19}

9' Leaf entire (strongly wavy in some Garrya species)

12. Inflorescence a catkin

13. Leaf blades well developed; catkins elongate, pendent ..... GARRYACEAE {G9,11}

13' Leaves scale-, awl-, or needle-like; "catkins" short, not pendent — actually catkin-like pollen cone of gymnosperm

14. Internodes very short; stem concealed by persistent, overlapping, green, scale-, awl-, or needle-like leaves; pollen sacs sessile beneath scales of small cone ..... CUPRESSACEAE (2) {G4}

14' Internodes long; stem green, bearing dry, scale-like, often early-deciduous leaves; pollen sacs borne on filament-like stalk ..... EPHEDRACEAE {G4,9}

12' Inflorescence not a catkin

15. Leaves whorled

16. Leaf with abaxial groove ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) (2) {G9,12,16}

16' Leaf flat or with midvein raised on abaxial face

17. Stamens 4; weak-stemmed shrub; stems 4-angled when young ..... RUBIACEAE (Galium) {G6,8,9,12}

17' Stamens 5–10; stiff shrub; stems round ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (4) {G9,12}

15' Leaves opposite

18. Herbage covered with silvery scales ..... ELAEAGNACEAE (Shepherdia) {G9,12}

18' Herbage glabrous or variously hairy

19. Petals fused proximally; stamens fused to corolla

20. Leaves glossy ..... RUBIACEAE ([Coprosma]) {G9}

20' Leaves densely hairy ..... SCROPHULARIACEAE (Buddleja) (2) {G9,19}

19' Petals free or 0; stamens free from corolla

21. Leaves thick, leathery, evergreen; flowers in peduncled, head-like clusters; sepals well developed ..... SIMMONDSIACEAE {G9,12}

21' Leaves thin, deciduous; flowers in sessile axillary clusters or short-peduncled racemes; sepals very small

22. Bark of young stems ± red; flowers pedicelled in short axillary racemes; stamens 5–10 ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (4) {G9,12}

22' Bark of young stems gray; flowers ± sessile in axillary clusters; stamens 1–4 ..... OLEACEAE (Forestiera) {G9,12}

4' Leaves alternate (leaf often opposite a tendril or inflorescence in Vitaceae)

23. Tendrils present; plant a vine; inflorescence of umbels or a panicle of head- or umbel-like clusters

24. Tendrils each opposite a leaf; calyx 0 or 5-lobed; petals 5, adherent at tips, ± yellow ..... VITACEAE (Vitis) {G9,12,23}

24' Tendrils 2+ near petiole base; perianth parts 6 in 2 whorls of 3, petal-like, free, white to ± green or ± yellow ..... SMILACACEAE {G6,8,9,16}

23' Tendrils 0; plant a shrub or tree, rarely a vine; inflorescence various

25. Inflorescence a catkin or spike

26. Leaves compound

27. Leaves 1- and 2-pinnate, leaflets 20–28 on 1-pinnate leaves ..... FABACEAE (Gleditsia) {G9}

27' Leaves 1-pinnate, leaflets 5–21

28. Plant evergreen — inflorescence resembles catkin when young, but is actually a branched panicle ..... ANACARDIACEAE (Pistacia) {G11,12}

28' Plant deciduous ..... JUGLANDACEAE {G9,11}

26' Leaves simple

29. Shrubs of ± saline desert habitats; leaves sometimes thick, ± fleshy; spikes erect or very short and axillary

30. Leaf blades generally flat; perianth present though generally small and inconspicuous; bracts 0 or not peltate ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G6,8,9,11,15}

30' Leaf blades generally ± cylindric; perianth 0; bracts peltate ..... SARCOBATACEAE {G9,11}

29' Shrubs or trees, generally of non-saline habitats; leaves mostly thinner, not fleshy; spikes or catkins erect to pendent

31. Leaves scale-, awl- or needle-like; plants evergreen — catkin-like structure actually pollen cone of a gymnosperm

32. Pollen sacs borne on filament-like stalks ..... TAXACEAE {G4}

32' Pollen sacs sessile on abaxial side of scale-like structures

33. Scales with 2 pollen sacs; needle-like leaves 1–30 cm; bark generally separating in flakes or plates ..... PINACEAE {G4}

33' Scales with several pollen sacs; needle-like leaves (if present) 1–2.5 cm; bark thick, fibrous, persistent ..... CUPRESSACEAE (2) {G4}

31' Leaves with well developed blades; plants evergreen or deciduous

34. Bractlets of inflorescence well developed and readily visible at time of flower

35. Catkins pendent

36. Catkin-bractlets fringe-margined, early-deciduous; stamens 8–60; trees ..... SALICACEAE (Populus)

36' Catkin-bractlets entire or appearing 3-lobed, persistent; stamens 1–10; shrubs or trees ..... BETULACEAE {G9,11}

35' Catkins ± stiff, ± erect to spreading but generally not pendent

37. Low, brittle shrubs; leaves thin, crenate ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Acalypha) {G9,11}

37' Shrubs or trees, not brittle; leaves entire or toothed — catkin bracts sometimes early-deciduous ..... SALICACEAE (Salix)

34' Bractlets of inflorescence 0 or very inconspicuous at time of flower

38. Evergreen shrubs or trees

39. Main veins of leaf parallel or nearly so — 2 perianth whorls actually present but sepals small and easily overlooked ..... FABACEAE (Acacia) (2)

39' Main veins of leaf clearly pinnate

40. Leaves glabrous or with stellate hairs, not gland-dotted; sepals present; generally of dry-land habitats; catkins slender, pendent, generally >= 2 cm ..... FAGACEAE (2) {G9,11}

40' Leaves glabrous or with minute, straight hairs, dotted with tiny resin glands; sepals 0; generally of moist, often wetland habitats; catkins short, dense, generally < 2 cm ..... MYRICACEAE (2) {G9,11}

38' Deciduous shrubs or trees

41. Sepals small but evident

42. Sepals 5–7; stamens 5–20; veins pinnate; leaf bases generally symmetric ..... FAGACEAE (2) {G9,11}

42' Sepals 4; stamens 4; veins palmate; leaf bases oblique ..... MORACEAE {G11,12}

41' Sepals 0 or calyx modified into cup- or saucer-shaped structure or reduced to a nectary

43. Leaves dotted with tiny resin glands; individual flowers difficult to distinguish ..... MYRICACEAE (2) {G9,11}

43' Leaves not gland-dotted; individual flowers clearly distinguishable on close examination ..... SALICACEAE {G9,11}

25' Inflorescence not a catkin or spike

44. Leaves and stems armed with prickles

45. Petals free; stamens many ..... ROSACEAE (Rubus ursinus) {G9}

45' Petals fused; stamens 5 ..... SOLANACEAE (Solanum marginatum)

44' Foliage not prickly, sometimes stems thorny or leaves spiny-toothed

46. Leaves palmately lobed

47. Leaves peltate; inflorescence a panicle ..... EUPHORBIACEAE (Ricinus) {G9,12}

47' Leaves not peltate; inflorescence a head ..... PLATANACEAE {G9,10,12}

46' Leaves not palmately lobed

48. Stems and leaves densely covered with stellate hairs ..... EUPHORBIACEAE {G9,15}

48' Stems and leaves glabrous or hairy but hairs not stellate

49. Stamens many

50. Leaves strongly aromatic; sepals 4; petals 0; anthers dehiscing by uplifted lids ..... LAURACEAE ([Laurus]) (2) {G9}

50' Leaves not aromatic; sepals 5; petals 5; anthers dehiscent by slits

51. Flowers in spheric heads; petals yellow, generally concealed by stamens; leaves simple or 2-pinnate ..... FABACEAE (Acacia) (2)

51' Flowers in racemes; petals white, conspicuous; leaves simple ..... ROSACEAE (Oemleria) {G9}

49' Stamens 12 or fewer

52. Leaves compound

53. Leaflets with a few, gland-tipped teeth near base ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Ailanthus) {G9,10,20}

53' Leaflets entire or teeth not gland-tipped

54. Leaflets 3–20, lance-linear to ovate, 10–130 mm ..... ANACARDIACEAE (2) {G9,20,23}

54' Leaflets 7–33, linear-oblong or narrowly elliptic, 2–10 mm ..... BURSERACEAE {G9,20}

52' Leaves simple (occasionally reduced to scales)

55. Shrub with thorny, generally leafless green stems; leaves scale-like to narrowly oblong, early deciduous ..... SIMAROUBACEAE (Castela) {G9,10,23}

55' Tree, shrub, or woody vine, thorns occasionally present but stems generally leafy; leaves various, sometimes deciduous in winter or dry season

56. Flower parts in 3s — leaves with abaxial groove ..... ERICACEAE (Empetrum) (2) {G9,12,16}

56' Flower parts generally in 4s, 5s, or 6s

57. Flowers in involucred heads, these generally in few- to many-headed clusters ..... ASTERACEAE {G6,8,9,12,14,17}

57' Flowers solitary or variously clustered, not in involucred heads

58. Leaves generally ± gray, either softly hairy or covered with powdery scales ..... CHENOPODIACEAE (2) {G6,8,9,11,15}

58' Leaves green

59. Petals present

60. Leaves entire to lobed, not spiny-toothed; inflorescence a terminal or axillary panicle or umbel-like cluster, or flowers 1; flower parts generally in 5s

61. Petals 1–5 mm ..... ANACARDIACEAE (2) {G9,20,23}

61' Petals 10–15 mm ..... PITTOSPORACEAE (Pittosporum)

60' Leaves spiny-toothed or entire; inflorescence an axillary cyme; flower parts in 4s or 5s

62. Stamens generally 4, alternate petals ..... AQUIFOLIACEAE {G9}

62' Stamens 4–5, opposite petals ..... RHAMNACEAE (Rhamnus) (2) {G9}

59' Petals 0

63. Leaves strongly aromatic; anthers dehiscing by uplifted lids ..... LAURACEAE ([Laurus]) (2) {G9}

63' Leaves not aromatic; anthers dehiscent by slits

64. Stamens = in number to and alternate sepals ..... RHAMNACEAE (Rhamnus) (2) {G9}

64' Stamens = in number to and opposite sepals or > in number than sepals

65. Leaf blade 2–12 mm; shrubs ..... PICRODENDRACEAE (4) {G9,12}

65' Leaf blade 30–140 mm; trees or large shrubs

66. Leaf 3-veined from base; inflorescence a sessile axillary cluster ..... CANNABACEAE (Celtis) {G12}

66' Leaf 1-veined from base; inflorescence a stalked umbel or umbel-like raceme ..... MORACEAE (Maclura) {G9}