California Seaweeds eFlora: Non-Native Seaweed Species List
      

 (Click on the entry name to see all UC specimens under that name; click on the specimen number in the text to see cited specimen)


Chlorophyceae
Bryopsis spp. (Silva_1979; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Three weedy strains of Bryopsis were reported from San Francisco Bay by Silva, based on unpublished culture work by Dennis Shevlin. Their identities have not been determined. Their behavior, including explosive population growth, is that of introduced species.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Brodie_Maggs_John_2007; Provan_et_al_2008) This notoriously weedy strain has spread throughout the North Atlantic and has made its way into the Mediterranean and Pacific Ocean as far as Australia and New Zealand. Its arrival on the Pacific coast of North America was recorded by Silva (1979: 345, fig. 15), who reported it from San Francisco Bay. Subsequently, it has been found in Tomales Bay, Marin Co., and at Newport, Oregon. Unlike the indigenous subspecies of C. fragile subsp. californicum, which is restricted to the outer coast, the non-native species grows in protected waters. There are no gross morphological characters by which the two subspecies may be distinguished.

Ulva australis Areschoug (Hughey_2013; Kirkendale_et_al._2013) Native to Asia. In Baja California, Mexico; Orange and San Diego counties; Tomales Bay, Marin Co.; Elkhorn Slough and Monterey Harbor, Monterey Co. 2011-12 (UC1997152, UC1997153, UC1997154, UC1997155, UC1997156, UC1997157, UC1997158).

Ulva clathratioides L. Kraft, G.T. Kraft, & R. Waller (Hughey_2013) Described from southern Australia. Floating, upper intertidal, Elkhorn Slough, 2012 (UC1997148 UC1997149 UC1997150 UC1997151).

Ulva pertusa Kjellman (Aguilar_Rosas_et_al_2008; Hughey_2013) Described from Japan. Reported from Baja California, Mexico, and worldwide. Intertidal in Tomales Bay, Marin Co., 2011 (UC1997152), Kirby Park, Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Co., 2011 (UC1997153, UC1997155), South Marsh Loop, Elkhorn Slough, 2012 (UC1997156, UC1997157), Monterey Marina, Monterey Harbor, 2011 (UC1997158, UC1997159).

Phaeophyceae
Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) LeJolis (Miller_et_al_2004; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Repeatedly introduced as packing material for east coast seafoods (e.g., lobsters), especially in San Francisco Bay (UC1513706, UC1560800, UC1876486); also Port of Redwood City, San Mateo Co. (UC1974549). Small population in San Francisco Bay has been eradicated, but re-introduction is probable.

Colpomenia claytoniae S.M. Boo, K.M. Lee, G.Y. Cho & W. Nelson (Boo_et_al_2011; Hughey_Miller_2018) Reported from Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. In California, from Coral Street Beach, Monterey Co., 1999; San Pedro, Los Angeles Co. 2010, on rock; Monterey Harbor, J. Hughey (2018) (UC2050588, UC2050589).

Colpomenia peregrina Sauvageau (Lee_et_al_2013) Probably native to Asia, but now widespread. Confirmed with molecular methods from Santa Catalina Island.

Elachista nigra Takamatsu (Kitayama_Miller_Silva_2005) Native to Asia. Reported from Wilson's Cove, San Clemente Island as an epiphyte on Ecklonia arborea (UC1574801).

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus (Hughey_et_al_1996; Serrao_et_al_1999) Native to the Atlantic seaboards. Reported from Tomales Bay, Marin Co., J. Hughey (UC1974630, UC1974631, UC1974632) and Bodega Harbor, Sonoma Co., K.A. Miller (2017) but rare in California.

Mutimo cylindricus (Yendo) H. Kawai & T. Kitayama (nom. inval). = Cutleria cylindrica Yendo (Stewart_1991; Kawai_et_al_2012) Santa Catalina Island (UC1829929, UC1574921, UC1574920, UC1965058); San Clemente Island (UC1965120); Anacapa Island; La Jolla, San Diego County.

Padina sp. Reported from Marina del Rey, Orange Co., 2016 (UC2050563); Jayson Smith.

Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Miller_et_al_2007; Miller_Engle_2009) Native to Asia. Discovered in Long Beach Harbor in 2004 (UC1965143). Confirmed from Point Loma, San Diego Co., 2007 (UC1965307, UC1965308, UC1965309); Mission Bay, San Diego Co., 2013 (UC1965368, UC2019970, UC2019971, UC2019972); Santa Catalina Island, 2006-7 (UC1965072, UC1965073, UC2019947), San Clemente Island, 2007 (UC1965079, UC2019938, UC2019939, UC2019940, UC2019941, UC2019942); Santa Cruz Island, 2011-12 (UC2019935, UC2019937); Anacapa Island.

Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt (Abbott_Hollenberg_1976; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) World-wide invasive, originally from Asia. Introduced to the west coast before World War II, it was detected in British Columbia, Canada in 1944, Oregon in 1947, Crescent City, California in 1963, Santa Catalina Island in southern California in 1970, and San Francisco Bay in 1973.

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Silva_et_al_2002; Miller_Engle_2009; Kaplanis_et_al_2016) Native to Asia. In California, it was discovered in Los Angeles Harbor in 2000 (UC1753610, UC1753611, UC1753612). It has since spread to Santa Barbara Harbor, Monterey Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, 2001 (UC1819273, UC1819274, UC1819275, UC1819276, UC1819277, UC1819278); San Diego Bay, 2004; San Francisco Bay, Morro Bay (UC1966708), Pillar Point Harbor, 2009; Santa Cruz Harbor and Mission Bay, San Diego Co., 2014; Anacapa Island, 2016 and Santa Cruz Island, 2019.

Rhodophyceae
Agardhiella subulata (C. Agardh) Kraft & Wynne (Hughey_Miller_2018) Lake Merritt, Oakland, CA by R.L. Moe (UC2050427, UC2050479).

Agarophyton vermiculophylla (H. Ohmi) C.F.D. Gurgel, J.N. Norris & S. Fredericq (Gurgel_et_al_2018; Bellorin_Oliveira_Oliveira_2004; Hughey_2013; Krueger-Hadfield_et_al_2018) Described from Penco, Bahía de Concepción, Provincia de Concepción, Región del Biobío, Chile. Identified first in Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Co.; now confirmed from Tomales Bay, Estero Americano, Marin Co.; Bodega Bay, Sonoma Co.; Moss Landing Harbor, Monterey Co.; and Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co. (UC2018521, UC1514455, UC1514457, UC93924) and many more bays and estuaries.

Aglaothamnion tenuissimum (Bonnemaison) Feldmann-Mazoyer (Josselyn_West_1985; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Type locality: Brest, France. Reported as Callithamnion byssoides, attached to rocks throughout San Francisco Bay.

Antithamnion nipponicum Yamada & Inagaki (Cho_Won_Fredericq_2006; Rueness_et_al_2007) Reported from San Francisco Bay as Antithamnion hubbsii. Confirmed from Half Moon Bay in 2003.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey (Ni_Chualain_et_al_2004; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Australia and New Zealand, was introduced into the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean in the 1920s and is now a conspicuous invasive species in North Atlantic Europe. The minute filamentous diploid phase of this species was collected in 1972 in San Diego and identified by molecular analysis. This species has not been observed since the original collection.

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M. Savoie & G.W. Saunders (Josselyn_West_1985, Savoie_Saunders_2018) First reported in 1985; Coyote Point, San Francisco Bay, San Mateo Co. (UC1876501, UC1876506, UC1876487); and Richmond Marina, Contra Costa Co. (UC1617909).

Caulacanthus okamurae Yamada (Zuccarello_West_Rueness_2002; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Probably native to Asia, though more research is required to determine the identity and origin of this species in California. Introduced to southern California (e.g., Los Angeles, Orange, Ventura Cos. (UC1965031, UC2025878, UC2034146, UC2026077); Santa Cruz; San Francisco Bay, Point Isabel, Contra Costa Co. (UC1715979,UC1965589, UC2050426); Santa Maria Creek, Marin Co. (UC2036867); and Tomales Bay, Marin Co.(UC1749967). Spreading rapidly.

Ceramium kondoi Yendo (Cho_Boo_Hansen_2002; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Asia, but has also been collected in Alaska, Vancouver Island, Canada and Oregon. In 1999, a single specimen was collected at Bodega Bay, Sonoma Co.

Ceramium sungminbooi J.R. Hughey & G.H. Boo (Hughey_Boo_2016) Native to Korea. Collected in Sausalito, San Francisco Bay, California (UC2050592); Yaquina and Coos bays, Oregon.

Dasya sessilis Yamada (Hughey_Miller_Lyman_2009; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Asia. Attached to floating docks at Coronado Cays, Coronado Bay, San Diego Co., 2008-9; Huntington Harbor, Huntington Beach, Orange Co., attached to vertical faces of concrete pilings (UC1944739); attached to vertical sides of concrete pilings and wood on floating docks, Long Beach, Los Angeles Co., 1976 (UC1846061), 2006 (UC1944738).

Dasya sp. (Hughey_Miller_Lyman_2009) A sequence from a Dasya specimen from San Francisco Bay, Coyote Point, San Mateo Co. (UC1944741, GenBank GU473264) differed from D. sessilis by 6 bp. This species may be undescribed.

Gelidium vagum Okamura (Hughey_et_al_1996) Native to Asia. In California, confirmed from Tomales Bay, Sonoma Co. 1994-5 (UC1934317 UC1934318, UC1934320, UC1604005, UC1974628, UC1749968, UC1974542, UC1974629).

Gracilaria parvispora I.A. Abbott (Krueger-Hadfield_et_al_2016) Described from Oahu, Hawaii. Reported from Laguna San Ignacio in Baja California Sur, Mexico in 2013 (Krueger-Hadfield_et_al_2016). Detected by DNA sequence in these California specimens: Agua Hedionda Lagoon, Carlsbad, San Diego Co., C. Steinke, 2006 (UC1863794); San Diego Bay, R. Woodfield, 2006 (UC1863789); Mouth of old Sweetwater River, San Diego Bay, R. Woodfield, 2006 (UC1863791); San Diego Bay, R. Woodfield, 2006 (UC1863790); Lagoon at mouth of Estero Americano, Marin Co., R.L. Moe, 2013 (UC1965546).

Gracilariopsis chorda (Holmes) Ohmi (Hughey_2013; Hughey_2015) Native to Japan, Korea and China. In California, attached to a concrete boat ramp in Kirby Park, Elkhorn Slough, Monterey County, 2011-2012 (UC1997139 UC1997140 UC1997141 UC1997142 UC1997143 UC1997144 UC1997145 UC1997146); attached to small pebbles buried in sandy mud in the lower intertidal on a sandspit in Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo Co., 2013 (UC1965346, UC1965347); Tomales Bay, Marin Co.

Grateloupia asiatica S. Kawaguchi & H.W. Wang (Hughey_2013) Native to Japan, Korea and China. In California, on dock below the Coronado Boathouse Restaurant, Coronado Island, San Diego, 2012 (UC1997160); Estero Americano, Marin Co., R.L. Moe, 2015 (in UC).

Grateloupia turuturu Yamada (Hughey_Miller_Lyman_2009; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) World-wide invasive, originally from Asia. Confirmed from Mission Bay, San Diego Co., 2011 (UC2036039 UC2036040); Alamitos Bay, Los Angeles Co., 2013 (UC1966771); Oxnard, San Luis Obisbo Co., 2013 (UC2050490); Santa Barbara Harbor, 2009 (UC1944749, UC1944750); Morro Bay, San Luis Obisbo Co., 2016 (UC2050489).

Lomentaria hakodatensis Yendo (Abbott_Hollenberg_1976; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Asia. Introduction date unknown; southern, central and northern California. In 1913, N.L. Gardner collected a specimen (UC284044) west of Santa Monica, Los Angeles Co. - before the species was described from Hokkaido, Japan by Yendo in 1920 (UC284044).

Melanothamnus collabens (C.Agardh) Diaz-Tapia & Maggs (Diaz_Tapia_et_al_2017) The sequence from California (KX756670) is only 0.1–0.2% divergent in its rbcL sequence from M. collabens from Spain. Further studies are needed to clarify the possible synonymy between these two species that share the unusual character of having (5–) 6 pericentral cells. Similarly, M. collabens is likely to be an old introduction into the Atlantic, where it extends from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Verde, including the western Mediterranean (Díaz-Tapia & Bárbara, 2013). The finding of M. collabens in California (as P. johnstonii) supports this hypothesis; although Polysiphonia johnstonii was first collected from the Gulf of California in 1921 (Setchell & Gardner, 1924), California was probably not the original source of the introduction.

Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) P. Díaz-Tapia & C. Maggs (Choi_Kim_Guiry_Saunders_2001; McIvor_et_al_2001) Native to Japan. First reported from southern California as Polysiphonia acuminata. Identified with DNA sequences from Monterey Bay; also attached to the underside of floating wood docks and on the vertical sides of concrete pilings 0-6 m in depth, Humboldt Bay, Humboldt Co., 2006 (UC1944754). Collected at Estero Americano, Marin Co., 2013 (UC1965163, UC1965147), and Emeryville Marina, San Francisco Bay (UC2050549).

Pachymeniopsis lanceolata (Okamura) Yamada ex S. Kawabata (Hughey_Miller_2009; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Japan. Confirmed from Coronado Cays, Coronado Bay, San Diego Co., 2008-9 (UC1944742 UC1944743 UC1944744); Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles Co. , 2003, 2008 (UC1934301, UC1934303); (Port Hueneme, Ventura Co., 2006 (UC1944745); Moss Landing, Monterey Co., 2008 (UC1934305 UC1934306 UC1934307 UC1934308 UC1934309 UC1934310 UC1934311, UC1934312 UC1934313); San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Co., 2009 (UC1944746 UC1944747 UC1944748 ).

Pyropia suborbiculata (Kjellman) J.E. Sutherland, H.G. Choi, M.S. Hwang & W.A. Nelson (Hughey_Miller_2009; Sutherland_et_al_2011; Hughey_Miller_2018) Native to Asia. In California, upper intertidal, Nick's Cove, Tomales Bay, Marin Co., 2011 (UC1966687, UC1966688, UC1966689); Sausalito, San Francisco Bay, Marin Co., 2018 (UC2050590, UC2050591).

Schizymenia dubyi (Chauvin ex Duby) J. Agardh (Hughey_Miller_2009) Reported from Europe, Africa, Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. In California, attached to floating docks, Monterey Marina, Monterey Harbor, Monterey Co., 2006-8 (UC1934344, UC1934345, UC1934346).






REFERENCES


Abbott, I.A. and Hollenberg, G.J. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Pp. 1-827. Stanford University Press.

Aguilar-Rosas, R., Aguilar-Rosas, L., and Shimada, S. 2008. First record of Ulva pertusa Kjellman (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in the Pacific coast of Mexico. Algae 23: 201-207.

Bellorin, A.M., Oliveira, M.C. & Oliveira, E.C. 2004. Gracilaria vermiculophylla: A western Pacific species of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta) first recorded from the eastern Pacific. Phycological Research 52: 69-79.

Boo, S.M., Lee, K.M., Cho, G.Y. & Nelson, W.A. 2011. Colpomenia claytonii sp. nov. (Scytosiphonaceae, Phaeophyceae) based on morphology and mitochondrial cox 3 sequences. Botanica Marina 54: 159-167.

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. 2007. Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. Pp. 1-242, 101 figs., London: British Phycological Society.

Cho, T.O., Boo, S.M. & Hansen, G.I. 2002. Structure and reproduction of the genus Ceramium (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from Oregon, USA. Phycologia 40: 547-571.

Cho, T.O., Won, B.Y. & Fredericq, S. 2006. Antithamnion nipponicum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta), incorrectly known as A. pectinatum in western Europe, is a recent introduction along the North Carolina and Pacific coasts of North America. European Journal of Phycology 40: 323-335.

Choi, H.-G., Kim, M.S., Guiry, M.D. & Saunders, G.W. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Polysiphonia (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) and its relatives based on anatomical and nuclear small-subunit rDNA sequence data. Canadian Journal of Botany 79: 1465-1476.

Díaz-Tapia, P., McIvor, L., Freshwater, D.W., Verbruggen, H., Wynne, M.J. & Maggs, C.A. 2017. The genera Melanothamnus Bornet & Falkenberg and Vertebrata S.F. Gray constitute well-defined clades of the red algal tribe Polysiphonieae (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales). European Journal of Phycology 52: 1-20.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Norris, J.N., Schmidt, W.E., Le, H.N. & Fredericq, S. 2018. Systematics of the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) including new subfamilies, tribes, subgenera, and two new genera, Agarophyton gen. nov. and Crassa gen. nov. Phytotaxa 374: 1-23.

Hughey, J.R. 2013. Noteworthy collections. California. Madroño 60: 57-59.

Hughey, J.R. 2015. Noteworthy Collections. Madroño 62: 73-74.

Hughey, J.R. & Boo, G.H. 2016. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of Ceramium cimbricum (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans supports the naming of a new invasive Pacific entity Ceramium sungminbooi sp. nov. Botanica Marina 15(4): 211-222.

Hughey, J.R., Kieldsen, C.K., Silva, P.C., Moe, R.L. & DeCew, T.C. 1996. Noteworthy collections. California. Madroño 43: 432.

Hughey, J.R. & Miller, K.A. 2009. Noteworthy collection. Madroño 56: 64.

Hughey, J.R., Miller, K.A. & Lyman, A. 2009. Noteworthy collection. Madroño 56: 293-295.

Hughey, J.R. and K.A. Miller. 2018. Noteworthy Collections: California. Agardhiella subulata, Colpomenia claytoniae, Pyropia suborbiculata. Madroño 65:154-156.

Josselyn, M.N. & West, J.A. 1985. The distribution and temporal dynamics of the estuarine macroalgal community of San Francisco Bay. Hydrobiologia 129: 139-152.

Kaplanis, N.J., Harris, J.L., & Smith, J.E. 2016. Distribution patterns of the non-native seaweeds Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh and Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar on the San Diego and Pacific coast of North America. Aquatic Invasions 11:111-124.

Kawai, H., Kogishi, K., Hanyuda, T. & Kitayama, T. 2012. Taxonomic revision of the genus Cutleria proposing a new genus Mutimo to accommodate M. cylindricus (Cutleriaceae, Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 60: 241-248.

Kirkendale, L., Saunders, G.W. & Winberg, P. 2013. A molecular survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in temperate Australia reveals enhanced levels of cosmopolitanism. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 69-81.

Kitayama, T., Miller, K.A. & Silva, P.C. 2005. First record of Elachista nigra (Chordariales, Phaeophyceae) from California, North America. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Ser. B, 31: 57-61.

Krueger-Hadfield, S.A., Stephens, T.A., Ryan, W.H. & Heiser, S. 2018. Everywhere you look, everywhere you go, there’s an estuary invaded by the red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967. BioInvasions Records 7(4): 343–355.

Lee, K.M., Boo, G.H., Coyer, J.A., Nelson, W.A., Miller, K.A., and Boo, S.M. 2013. Distribution patterns and introduction pathways of the cosmopolitan brown alga Colpomenia peregrina using mt cox3 and atp6 sequences. Journal of Applied Phycology 26: 491-504.

McIvor, L., Maggs, C.A., Provan, J. & Stanhope, M.J. 2001. rbcL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyi. Molecular Ecology 10: 911-919.

Miller, A.W., Chang, A.L., Consentino-Manning, N. & Ruiz, G.M. 2004. A new record and eradication of the Northern Atlantic alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyceae) from San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Journal of Phycology 40: 1028-1031.

Miller, K.A. & Engle, J.M. 2009. The natural history of Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum filicinum at the California Channel Islands: Non-native seaweeds with different invasion styles. Pp 131-140 in Damian, C.C. and D.K. Garcelon (eds.). 2009. Proceedings of 131 the 7th California Islands Symposium. Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, CA.

Miller, K.A., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E. & Pedroche, F.F. 2011. A review of non-native seaweeds from California, USA and Baja California, Mexico. Hidrobiologica 21:240-254.

Miller, K.A., Engle, J.M., Uwai, S. & Kawai, H. 2007. First report of the Asian seaweed Sargassum filicinum Harvey (Fucales) in California, USA. Biological Invasions 9: 609-613.

Ní Chualáin, F., Maggs, C.A., Saunders, G.W. & Guiry, M.D. 2004. The invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta): molecular systematics, morphology, and ecophysiology of Falkenbergia isolates. Journal of Phycology 40: 1112-1126.

Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. 2008. Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions: A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.

Rueness, J., Heggøy, E., Husa, V. & Sjøtun, K. 2007. First report of the Japanese red alga Antithamnion nipponicum (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in Norway, an invasive species new to northern Europe. Aquatic Invasions 2(4): 431-434.

Serrão, E.A., Alice, L.A. & Brawley, S.H. 1999. Evolution of the Fucaceae (Phaeophyceae) inferred from nrDNA-ITS. Journal of Phycology 35: 382-394.

Silva, P.C. 1979. The benthic algal flora of central San Francisco Bay. In: San Francisco Bay: the Urbanized Estuary. (Conomos, T.J., ed.), pp. 287-345. San Francisco: Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Silva, P.C., Woodfield, R.A., Cohen, A.N., Harris, L.H. & Goddard, J.H.R. 2002. First report of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Biological Invasions 4: 333-338.

Stewart, J.G. 1991. Marine algae and seagrasses of San Diego County. California Sea Grant College, University of California, La Jolla, Calif. Report No. T-CSGCP-020. Pp. 197.

Sutherland, J.E., Lindstrom, S.C., Nelson, W.A., Brodie, J., Lynch, M.D.J., Hwang, M.S., Choi, H.-G., Miyata, M., Kikuchi, N., Oliveira, M.C., Farr, T., Neefus, C.D., Mols-Mortensen, A., Milstein, D., Müller, K.M. 2011. A new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 47: 1131-1151.

Zuccarello, G.C., West, J.A. & Rueness, J. 2002. Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan red alga Caulacanthus ustulatus (Caulacanthaceae, Gigartinales). Phycological Research 50: 163-172.

        

Tue Dec 31 05:21:51 2019