California Seaweeds eFlora: Non-Native Seaweed Species List


 (Click on the entry name to see all UC specimens under that name; click on the specimen number in the text to see cited specimen)

Bryopsis spp. (Silva_1979; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Three weedy strains of Bryopsis were reported from San Francisco Bay by Silva, based on unpublished culture work by Dennis Shevlin. Their identities have not been determined. Their behavior, including explosive population growth, is that of introduced species.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Brodie_Maggs_John_2007; Provan_et_al_2008) This notoriously weedy strain has spread throughout the North Atlantic and has made its way into the Mediterranean and Pacific Ocean as far as Australia and New Zealand. Its arrival on the Pacific coast of North America was recorded by Silva (1979: 345, fig. 15), who reported it from San Francisco Bay. Subsequently, it has been found in Tomales Bay, Marin Co., and at Newport, Oregon. Unlike the indigenous subspecies of C. fragile subsp. californicum, which is restricted to the outer coast, the non-native species grows in protected waters. There are no gross morphological characters by which the two subspecies may be distinguished. Rare in California.

Ulva australis Areschoug (Aguilar_Rosas_et_al_2008; Hughey_2013; Kirkendale_et_al._2013) Native to Asia. In Baja California, Mexico; Orange and San Diego counties; Tomales Bay, Marin Co.; Elkhorn Slough and Monterey Harbor, Monterey Co. 2011-12 (UC1997152, UC1997153, UC1997154, UC1997155, UC1997156, UC1997157, UC1997158). Probably common in California, but difficult to identify confidently.

Ulva clathratioides L. Kraft, G.T. Kraft, & R. Waller (Hughey_2013) Described from southern Australia. Floating, upper intertidal, Elkhorn Slough, 2012 (UC1997148 UC1997149 UC1997150 UC1997151). Frequency in California unknown.

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) LeJolis (Miller_et_al_2004; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Repeatedly introduced as packing material for east coast seafoods (e.g., lobsters), especially in San Francisco Bay (UC1513706, UC1560800, UC1876486); also Port of Redwood City, San Mateo Co. (UC1974549). Small population in San Francisco Bay has been eradicated, but re-introduction is probable.

Colpomenia claytoniae S.M. Boo, K.M. Lee, G.Y. Cho & W. Nelson (Boo_et_al_2011; Hughey_Miller_2018) Reported from Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. In California, from Coral Street Beach, Monterey Co., 1999; San Pedro, Los Angeles Co. 2010, on rock; Monterey Harbor, J. Hughey (2018) (UC2050588, UC2050589; not imaged). Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Colpomenia peregrina Sauvageau (Lee_et_al_2013) Probably native to Asia, but now widespread. Confirmed with molecular methods from Santa Catalina Island. Well-established in California.

Elachista nigra Takamatsu (Kitayama_Miller_Silva_2005) Native to Asia. Reported from Wilson's Cove, San Clemente Island as an epiphyte on Ecklonia arborea (UC1574801). Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus (Hughey_et_al_1996; Serrao_et_al_1999) Native to the Atlantic seaboards. Reported from Tomales Bay, Marin Co., J. Hughey (UC1974630, UC1974631, UC1974632) and Bodega Harbor, Sonoma Co., K.A. Miller (2017) but rare in California.

Mutimo cylindricus (Yendo) H. Kawai & T. Kitayama (nom. inval). = Cutleria cylindrica Yendo (Stewart_1991; Kawai_et_al_2012) Santa Catalina Island (UC1829929, UC1574921, UC1574920, UC1965058); San Clemente Island (UC1965120); Anacapa Island; La Jolla, San Diego County. Frequent in soft sediment subtidal habitats in southern California.

Padina sp. Reported from Marina del Rey, Orange Co., 2016 (UC2050563); Jayson Smith. Rare.

Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Miller_et_al_2007; Miller_Engle_2009) Native to Asia. Discovered in Long Beach Harbor in 2004 (UC1965143). Confirmed from Point Loma, San Diego Co., 2007 (UC1965307, UC1965308, UC1965309); Mission Bay, San Diego Co., 2013 (UC1965368, UC2019970, UC2019971, UC2019972); Santa Catalina Island, 2006-7 (UC1965072, UC1965073, UC2019947), San Clemente Island, 2007 (UC1965079, UC2019938, UC2019939, UC2019940, UC2019941, UC2019942); Santa Cruz Island, 2011-12 (UC2019935, UC2019937); Anacapa Island. Invasive.

Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt (Abbott_Hollenberg_1976; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) World-wide invasive, originally from Asia. Introduced to the west coast before World War II, it was detected in British Columbia, Canada in 1944, Oregon in 1947, Crescent City, California in 1963, Santa Catalina Island in southern California in 1970, and San Francisco Bay in 1973. Well-established in intertidal and subtidal habitats.

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Silva_et_al_2002; Miller_Engle_2009; Kaplanis_et_al_2016) Native to Asia. In California, it was discovered in Los Angeles Harbor in 2000 (UC1753610, UC1753611, UC1753612). It has since spread to Santa Barbara Harbor, Monterey Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, 2001 (UC1819273, UC1819274, UC1819275, UC1819276, UC1819277, UC1819278); San Diego Bay, 2004; San Francisco Bay, Morro Bay (UC1966708), Pillar Point Harbor, 2009; Santa Cruz Harbor and Mission Bay, San Diego Co., 2014; Anacapa Island, 2016 and Santa Cruz Island, 2019. Invasive.

Agardiella subulata (C. Agardh) Kraft & Wynne (Hughey_Miller_2018) Lake Merritt, Oakland, CA by R.L. Moe (UC2050427, UC2050479). Frequency in California unknown.

Agarophyton vermiculophyllum (H. Ohmi) C.F.D. Gurgel, J.N. Norris & S. Fredericq (Gurgel_et_al_2018; Bellorin_Oliveira_Oliveira_2004; Hughey_2013; Krueger-Hadfield_et_al_2018) Described from Penco, Bahía de Concepción, Provincia de Concepción, Región del Biobío, Chile. Identified first in Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Co.; now confirmed from Tomales Bay, Estero Americano, Marin Co.; Bodega Bay, Sonoma Co.; Moss Landing Harbor, Monterey Co.; and Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co. (UC2018521, UC1514455, UC1514457, UC93924) and many more bays and estuaries. Common in soft-sediment habitats; invasive.

Aglaothamnion tenuissimum (Bonnemaison) Feldmann-Mazoyer (Josselyn_West_1985; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Type locality: Brest, France. Reported as Callithamnion byssoides, attached to rocks throughout San Francisco Bay; collected in 1997 at Point Pinole, Contra Costa Co. by R.L. Moe as Aglaothamnion haliae (UC2050445; not imaged). Frequency in California unknown.

Antithamnion nipponicum Yamada & Inagaki (Cho_Won_Fredericq_2006; Rueness_et_al_2007) Confirmed from Half Moon Bay in 2003. Rare.

Asparagopsis armata Harvey (Ni_Chualain_et_al_2004; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Australia and New Zealand, was introduced into the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean in the 1920s and is now a conspicuous invasive species in North Atlantic Europe. The minute filamentous diploid phase of this species was collected in 1972 in San Diego and identified by molecular analysis. This species has not been observed since the original collection.

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M. Savoie & G.W. Saunders (Josselyn_West_1985, Savoie_Saunders_2018, Santiañez_&_Wynne_2020) First reported in 1985; Coyote Point, San Francisco Bay, San Mateo Co. (UC1876501, UC1876506, UC1876487); and Richmond Marina, Contra Costa Co. (UC1617909). Frequent, especially in soft-sediment habitats.

Caulacanthus okamurae Yamada (Zuccarello_West_Rueness_2002; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Probably native to Asia, though more research is required to determine the identity and origin of this species in California. Introduced to southern California (e.g., Los Angeles, Orange, Ventura Cos. (UC1965031, UC2025878, UC2034146, UC2026077); Santa Cruz; San Francisco Bay, Point Isabel, Contra Costa Co. (UC1715979, UC1965589, UC2050426); Santa Maria Creek, Marin Co. (UC2036867); and Tomales Bay, Marin Co.(UC1749967). Spreading rapidly; invasive.

Ceramium kondoi Yendo (Cho_Boo_Hansen_2002; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Asia, but has also been collected in Alaska, Vancouver Island, Canada and Oregon. In 1999, a single specimen was collected at Bodega Bay, Sonoma Co. Rare.

Ceramium sungminbooi J.R. Hughey & G.H. Boo (Hughey_Boo_2016) Native to Korea. Collected in Sausalito, San Francisco Bay, California (UC2050592); Yaquina and Coos bays, Oregon. Rare.

Dasya sessilis Yamada (Hughey_Miller_Lyman_2009; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Asia. Attached to floating docks at Coronado Cays, Coronado Bay, San Diego Co., 2008-9; Huntington Harbor, Huntington Beach, Orange Co., attached to vertical faces of concrete pilings (UC1944739; not imaged); attached to vertical sides of concrete pilings and wood on floating docks, Long Beach, Los Angeles Co., 1976 (UC1846061; not imaged), 2006 (UC1944738; not imaged). Spreading in sheltered habitats.

Dasya sp. (Hughey_Miller_Lyman_2009) A sequence from a Dasya specimen from San Francisco Bay, Coyote Point, San Mateo Co. (UC1944741, GenBank GU473264) differed from D. sessilis by 6 bp. This species may be undescribed.

Gelidium vagum Okamura (Hughey_et_al_1996) Native to Asia. In California, confirmed from Tomales Bay, Sonoma Co. 1994-5 (UC1934317 UC1934318, UC1934320, UC1604005, UC1974628, UC1749968, UC1974542, UC1974629). Rare.

Gracilaria parvispora I.A. Abbott (Krueger-Hadfield_et_al_2016) Described from Oahu, Hawaii. Reported from Laguna San Ignacio in Baja California Sur, Mexico in 2013 (Krueger-Hadfield_et_al_2016). Detected by DNA sequence in these California specimens: Agua Hedionda Lagoon, Carlsbad, San Diego Co., C. Steinke, 2006 as Gracilaria (UC1863794); San Diego Bay, R. Woodfield, 2006 as Gracilaria (UC1863789); Mouth of old Sweetwater River, San Diego Bay, R. Woodfield, 2006 as Gracilaria (UC1863791); San Diego Bay, R. Woodfield, 2006 as Gracilaria (UC1863790); Lagoon at mouth of Estero Americano, Marin Co., R.L. Moe, 2013 as Gracilaria (UC1965546). Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Gracilariopsis chorda (Holmes) Ohmi (Hughey_2013; Hughey_2015) Native to Japan, Korea and China. In California, attached to a concrete boat ramp in Kirby Park, Elkhorn Slough, Monterey County, 2011-2012 (UC1997139 UC1997140 UC1997141 UC1997142 UC1997143 UC1997144 UC1997145 UC1997146); attached to small pebbles buried in sandy mud in the lower intertidal on a sandspit in Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo Co., 2013 (UC1965346, UC1965347); Tomales Bay, Marin Co. Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Grateloupia asiatica S. Kawaguchi & H.W. Wang (Hughey_2013) Native to Japan, Korea and China. In California, on dock below the Coronado Boathouse Restaurant, Coronado Island, San Diego, 2012 (UC1997160); Estero Americano, Marin Co., R.L. Moe, 2015 (in UC). Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Grateloupia turuturu Yamada (Hughey_Miller_Lyman_2009; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) World-wide invasive, originally from Asia. Confirmed from Mission Bay, San Diego Co., 2011 (UC2036039 UC2036040); Alamitos Bay, Los Angeles Co., 2013 (UC1966771); Oxnard, San Luis Obisbo Co., 2013 (UC2050490); Santa Barbara Harbor, 2009 (UC1944749, UC1944750); Morro Bay, San Luis Obisbo Co., 2016 (UC2050489). Probably overlooked; invasive.

Lomentaria hakodatensis Yendo (Abbott_Hollenberg_1976; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Asia. Introduction date unknown; southern, central and northern California. In 1913, N.L. Gardner collected a specimen (UC284044) west of Santa Monica, Los Angeles Co. - before the species was described from Hokkaido, Japan by Yendo in 1920 (UC284044). Well-established in harbors and southern intertidal beaches.

Melanothamnus collabens (C.Agardh) Diaz-Tapia & Maggs (Diaz_Tapia_et_al_2017) The sequence from California (KX756670) is only 0.1–0.2% divergent in its rbcL sequence from M. collabens from Spain. Further studies are needed to clarify the possible synonymy between these two species that share the unusual character of having (5–) 6 pericentral cells. Similarly, M. collabens is likely to be an old introduction into the Atlantic, where it extends from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Verde, including the western Mediterranean (Díaz-Tapia & Bárbara, 2013). The finding of M. collabens in California (as P. johnstonii) supports this hypothesis; although Polysiphonia johnstonii was first collected from the Gulf of California in 1921 (Setchell & Gardner, 1924), California was probably not the original source of the introduction. Rare.

Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) P. Díaz-Tapia & C. Maggs (Choi_Kim_Guiry_Saunders_2001; McIvor_et_al_2001) Native to Japan. First reported from southern California as Polysiphonia acuminata. Identified with DNA sequences from Monterey Bay; also attached to the underside of floating wood docks and on the vertical sides of concrete pilings 0-6 m in depth, Humboldt Bay, Humboldt Co., 2006 (UC1944754; not imaged). Collected at Estero Americano, Marin Co., 2013 (UC1965163, UC1965147), and Emeryville Marina, San Francisco Bay (UC2050549). Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Pachymeniopsis lanceolata (Okamura) Yamada ex S. Kawabata (Hughey_Miller_2009; Miller_Aguilar-Rosas_Pedroche_2011) Native to Japan. Confirmed from Coronado Cays, Coronado Bay, San Diego Co., 2008-9 (UC1944742 UC1944743 UC1944744); Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles Co. , 2003, 2008 (UC1934301, UC1934303); (Port Hueneme, Ventura Co., 2006 (UC1944741); Moss Landing, Monterey Co., 2008 (UC1934305 UC1934306 UC1934307 UC1934308 UC1934309 UC1934310 UC1934311, UC1934312 UC1934313); San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Co., 2009 (UC1944746 UC1944747 UC1944748 ). Probably more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.

Phycocalidia suborbiculata (Kjellman) Santiañez & M.J.Wynne (Hughey_Miller_2009; Sutherland_et_al_2011; Hughey_Miller_2018; Santiañez_Wynne_2020) Native to Asia. In California, upper intertidal, Nick's Cove, Tomales Bay, Marin Co., 2011 (UC1966687, UC1966688, UC1966689, as Pyropia suborbiculata ); Sausalito, San Francisco Bay, Marin Co., 2018 as Pyropia suborbiculata. Frequency in California unknown.

Schizymenia dubyi (Chauvin ex Duby) J. Agardh (Hughey_Miller_2009) Reported from Europe, Africa, Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. In California, attached to floating docks, Monterey Marina, Monterey Harbor, Monterey Co., 2006-8 (UC1934344, UC1934345, UC1934346). Could be more frequent than we know; difficult to identify confidently.


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Fri Aug 28 12:52:52 2020