Jepson eFlora

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, [accessed on ]

Key to groups

Family key to Group 3

Group 3: Plants reproducing by spores released directly from sporangia; flowers and seeds never formed (Lycophytes and Ferns)

1. Plant free-floating, raft-like, or stranded along shoreline or on drying mud

2. Leaves 0.5–1.5 mm,  [each with a thick green or ± red-tinged floating  and a thin, colorless submersed lobe]; upper surface of floating lobe  or with short, inconspicuous hairs ..... AZOLLACEAE {G2}

2' Leaves 5–25 mm, appearing  [actually 2 floating leaves plus a 3rd submersed  dissected into root-like lobes]; upper surface of floating leaves conspicuously hairy ..... SALVINIACEAE {G2}

1' Plant anchored in soil or growing on another plant [if plant aquatic, rooted in bottom sediments]

3. Leaves  or scale- or needle-like,  or toothed (sometimes divided into linear  in Asplenium septentrionale); veins generally 0 or 1 (–few in Asplenium septentrionale)

4. Leaves 

5. Sporangia in 1 or more  sori on abaxial  face ..... ASPLENIACEAE (Asplenium septentrionale)

5' Sporangia underground, each embedded in adaxial face of widened  base or several enclosed in hard, spheric  case near leaf base

6. Plant tufted, base corm-like; new leaves , never coiled;  solitary, embedded in adaxial face of widened  base, ± covered by a translucent membrane ..... ISOETACEAE {G2}

6' Plant creeping by rhizomes; new leaves ± coiled, unrolling as they develop; sporangia several, enclosed in short-stalked, hard case attached near  base ..... MARSILEACEAE (Pilularia) {G2}

4' Leaves cauline, scale- or needle-like; sporangia in cone at tip of aerial shoot or in axils of distal leaves

7. Stem hollow, jointed at leaves fused at base; sporangia several on undersides of  structures that are clustered in terminal cone ..... EQUISETACEAE {G2}

7' Stem solid, not jointed; leaves  or sporangia in axils of distal scale-like leaves, the aggregation of fertile leaves sometimes cone-like

8. Fertile leaves not in well defined ranks, the aggregation appearing round when viewed along axis from tip; sporangia all of 1 kind, producing only 1 kind of spore ..... LYCOPODIACEAE

8' Fertile leaves 4-ranked, the aggregation appearing square when viewed along axis from tip; sporangia of 2 kinds, some with 4 large spores and others with many small spores ..... SELAGINELLACEAE

3' Leaves with well developed blades, not  or scale- or needle-like, often lobed or compoundveins many

9. Plant aquatic or in dried pools or creek beds;  palmately compoundleaflets 4; sporangia borne underground or underwater, enclosed in short-stalked, hard case attached near  base ..... MARSILEACEAE (Marsilea) {G2}

9' Plant terrestrial or strongly emergent if in wet soil, or growing on another plant;   or 1–4-pinnate, if compoundleaflets generally >> 4; sporangia borne on aerial portion of leaf

10. Leaf divided into dissimilar sterile (trophophore) and fertile (sporophore) parts; sterile part with an  or 1–3-pinnate ; fertile part bladeless, sporangia borne in stalked cluster arising from  or blade base; new leaves never coiled ..... OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

10' Leaf not divided into dissimilar sterile and fertile parts; sporangia borne on underside of  , sometimes near margin; new leaves generally coiled, unrolling as they develop

11. Leaves of 2 dissimilar kinds, the fertile (sporangium-bearing) blades with greatly narrowed segments

12. Blade deeply pinnately lobed or 1-pinnate;  generally > 30 cm ..... BLECHNACEAE (Struthiopteris)

12' Blade 2 or more ×  or divided;  <= 30 cm ..... PTERIDACEAE (4)

11' Leaves all alike or nearly so, the fertile [sporangium-bearing] blades very similar in size and shape to sterile blades

13. Sori borne along or near margin of indusia 0 or sori covered by  or  leaf margin or leaf margin segment

14. Pinnae all  or minutely toothed ..... PTERIDACEAE (4)

14' Pinnae [some or all of them] conspicuously toothed, lobed, or compound

15. Rhizome and base of  covered by hairs long-creeping;  often > 80 cm, sometimes >= 2 m —  widely triangular, 2–4-pinnate ..... DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

15' Rhizome and base of  bearing  to  scales short and compact to long-creeping;  generally < 80 cm, often much shorter ..... PTERIDACEAE (4)

13' Sori borne away from margin on underside of  or , or sporangia scattered along veins and not clustered into soriindusia present or 0

16. Sporangia scattered along veins, not clustered into distinct soriindusia 0 ..... PTERIDACEAE (4)

16' Sporangia clustered in distinct soriindusia sometimes present

17. Indusia 0

18. Blade deeply pinnately lobed ..... POLYPODIACEAE

18' Blade 2–3-pinnate

19. Trunk present;  >= 1 m; stipe not easily crushed,  margin with bristle-like teeth ..... CYATHEACEAE

19' Trunk 0;  < 1 m; stipe easily crushed,  margin ± , without bristle-like teeth ..... ATHYRIACEAE (Athyrium distentifolium var. americanum)

17' Indusia present

20. Sori  to  or J-shaped

21. Veins of  segment forming a network; sori generally 2–4 mm, linear-oblong, end-to-end in rows parallel to midvein of leaf segment — leaves with deeply pinnately lobed pinnae ..... BLECHNACEAE (Woodwardia)

21' Veins of  segment free, minor veins extending to segment margin without rejoining; sori 0.5–15 mm, , J-shaped, or , not end-to-end in rows parallel to midvein of leaf segment

22. Leaf 3–30 cm, 1-pinnate with pinnae < 1.5 cm or  , undivided or  ..... ASPLENIACEAE

22' Leaf 20–200 cm, 1–2  with pinnae generally 5–25 cm, toothed or pinnately lobed ..... ATHYRIACEAE (Athyrium filix-femina var. cyclosorum)

20' Sori ± round

23. Blade with 1-celled, clear, needle-like hairs ..... THELYPTERIDACEAE

23' Blade without needle-like hairs

24. Indusium  or round-reniform, attached ± in center of , generally present and readily observable in late-season specimens ..... DRYOPTERIDACEAE

24' Indusium attached to one side of  (hood-like) or attached beneath sorus and often of hair- or scale-like fragments or , generally delicate, often difficult to observe in late-season specimens

25. Indusium attached to one side of  and arching over it, hood-like; veins not expanded at tip, extending to  margin ..... CYSTOPTERIDACEAE

25' Indusium of hair- or strap-like segments reaching over  from below; veins expanded at tip, ending before  margin ..... WOODSIACEAE