Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Centranthus ruber
RED VALERIAN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ValerianaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VALERIAN FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, occasionally strongly scented, odor generally unpleasant. Leaf: simple to pinnately lobed or compound; petioles generally sheathing; basal +- whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally +- dense. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary tip, limb 0 or lobes generally 5--15, coiled inward, plumose in age, pappus-like, spreading in fruit; corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1--3, fused to petals; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1, or occasionally 3 but 2 empty or vestigial. Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged.
Genera In Family: +- 17 genera, 300 species: generally temperate, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus), some medicinal (Valeriana).
eFlora Treatment Author: Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CentranthusView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb (in California). Stem: 1--many; base occasionally woody. Leaf: generally cauline, simple, entire to lobed [toothed]. Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, +- dense, open in age; terminal or axillary. Flower: calyx lobes 5--15, coiled inward, plumose in age, spreading, persistent in fruit; corolla +- funnel-shaped, lobes +- unequal, spreading, tube long, slender, long-spurred; stamen 1. Fruit: +- compressed; adaxial surface 1-veined, abaxial surface 3-veined.
Species In Genus: 12 species: Mediterranean. Etymology: (Greek: spurred flower)

Centranthus ruber (L.) DC.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant glabrous, glaucous; base generally woody. Stem: decumbent to erect, simple or branched, 3--9 dm, hollow. Leaf: 5--8 cm, blades widely oblong to lance-elliptic, acute to rounded, entire, occasionally lobed at base; proximal petioled, distal sessile. Flower: corolla 14--18 mm, generally +- purple-red, occasionally lavender or white; spur (3)4--6 mm. Fruit: 3--4 mm, glabrous. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Disturbed places, rock or wall crevices, roadsides; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCo, KR, NCoRO, SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SW, cultivated elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: native to Mediterranean Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster
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Citation for this treatment: Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster 2016. Centranthus ruber, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18595, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 29, 2016.


Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Centranthus ruber in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Centranthus ruber:
s NCo, KR, NCoRO, SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SW, cultivated elsewhere;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.