Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Centranthus ruber
RED VALERIAN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ValerianaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VALERIAN FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, occasionally strongly scented, odor generally unpleasant. Leaf: simple to pinnately lobed or compound; petioles generally sheathing; basal +- whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally +- dense. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary tip, limb 0 or lobes generally 5--15, coiled inward, plumose in age, pappus-like, spreading in fruit; corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1--3, fused to petals; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1, or occasionally 3 but 2 empty or vestigial. Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged.
Genera In Family: +- 17 genera, 300 species: generally temperate, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus), some medicinal (Valeriana).
eFlora Treatment Author: Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CentranthusView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb (in California). Stem: 1--many; base occasionally woody. Leaf: generally cauline, simple, entire to lobed [toothed]. Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, +- dense, open in age; terminal or axillary. Flower: calyx lobes 5--15, coiled inward, plumose in age, spreading, persistent in fruit; corolla +- funnel-shaped, lobes +- unequal, spreading, tube long, slender, long-spurred; stamen 1. Fruit: +- compressed; adaxial surface 1-veined, abaxial surface 3-veined.
Species In Genus: 12 species: Mediterranean. Etymology: (Greek: spurred flower)

Centranthus ruber (L.) DC.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant glabrous, glaucous; base generally woody. Stem: decumbent to erect, simple or branched, 3--9 dm, hollow. Leaf: 5--8 cm, blades widely oblong to lance-elliptic, acute to rounded, entire, occasionally lobed at base; proximal petioled, distal sessile. Flower: corolla 14--18 mm, generally +- purple-red, occasionally lavender or white; spur (3)4--6 mm. Fruit: 3--4 mm, glabrous. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Disturbed places, rock or wall crevices, roadsides; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCo, KR, NCoRO, SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SW, cultivated elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: native to Mediterranean Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster
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Citation for this treatment: Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster 2016. Centranthus ruber, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18595, accessed on May 25, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 25, 2016.


Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Centranthus ruber
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Centranthus ruber in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Centranthus ruber:
s NCo, KR, NCoRO, SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SW, cultivated elsewhere;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.