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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Key to groups

Family key to Group 5

Group 5: Fruits developing from cleistogamous flowers; plants sometimes also producing open flowers

1. Cleistogamous flowers formed at or below ground or water surface

2. Plant ± aquatic, submersed or emergent

3. Leaves opposite, palmately veined ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Bacopa) (2)

3' Leaves alternate, parallel-veined ..... PONTEDERIACEAE (Heteranthera)

2' Plant terrestrial

4. Leaves petioled

5. Fruit 3-angled achene, tightly enclosed by hardened perianth; cleistogamous flowers at stem base ..... POLYGONACEAE (Emex spinosa)

5' Fruit ovoid to oblong capsule, not enclosed by hardened perianth; cleistogamous flowers in proximal leaf axils ..... VIOLACEAE (2) {G15,20,24}

4' Leaves sessile

6. Leaves 0.5–4 cm, ± linear, ± 1-veined, not sheathing; cleistogamous flowers at stem base ..... BORAGINACEAE (Pectocarya)

6' Leaves 2–9 cm, ovate to lance-elliptic, parallel-veined, sheathing; cleistogamous flowers underground ..... COMMELINACEAE (Commelina)

1' Cleistogamous flowers formed above ground or water surface

7. Leaves sheathing, linear, parallel-veined; spikelets of cleistogamous flowers enclosed within leaf sheaths or borne in panicle-like clusters ..... POACEAE {G2,6,8,13}

7' Leaves not sheathing, linear to ovate, not parallel-veined; spikelets of cleistogamous flowers 0

8. Leaves all basal, inflorescence or solitary flower scapose

9. Plant aquatic; leaves on rhizome or stolon, often bearing small, hollow bladders that suck in and trap small organisms when hairs at opening are triggered; flowers 1–few ..... LENTIBULARIACEAE (Utricularia subulata)

9' Plant terrestrial; leaves in basal rosette, not bearing traps; inflorescence a spike (flower 1) ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Plantago) {G8,18,19}

8' Leaves all or mostly cauline

10. Ovary inferior

11. Inflorescence a closed head enclosed by spine-tipped involucre bracts ..... ASTERACEAE (Centaurea melitensis)

11' Inflorescence a spike or spike-like raceme or flowers sessile in leaf axils

12. Ovary/fruit not narrowed distally; sepals ascending or ± spreading ..... CAMPANULACEAE (Githopsis, Heterocodon, Triodanis)

12' Ovary/fruit distally narrowed; sepals not separating ..... ONAGRACEAE (Epilobium, Neoholmgrenia)

10' Ovary superior

13. Leaves ± fleshy

14. Plant 50–230 cm; leaves entire or toothed ..... BALSAMINACEAE ([Impatiens capensis]) (2)

14' Plant 1–30 cm; leaves entire ..... MONTIACEAE (Montia) {G2}

13' Leaves not fleshy

15. Leaves opposite

16. Leaves 2–7 mm, awl-shaped to oblong, bristle-tipped ..... CARYOPHYLLACEAE (Loeflingia)

16' Leaves linear, oblong, or lanceolate to ovate or round, not bristle-tipped

17. Stem square in ×-section; flowers in head-like axillary and terminal clusters — fruit 4 nutlets ..... LAMIACEAE (Lamium amplexicaule)

17' Stem round in ×-section; flowers axillary or in terminal raceme

18. Leaves of a pair unequal; ovule 1; fruit achene; perianth base hardened or 5-winged or -ribbed around fruit ..... NYCTAGINACEAE (Acleisanthes, Mirabilis albida)

18' Leaves of a pair equal; ovules several–many; fruit capsule; perianth base not hardened or 5-winged around fruit

19. Fruit valves 3, ovary chambers 3 ..... CISTACEAE (Tuberaria)

19' Fruit valves 2, ovary chambers 1–2

20. Sepals strongly fused ..... PHRYMACEAE (Mimulus)

20' Sepals ± free ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Bacopa) (2)

15' Leaves alternate

21. Fruit 1–4 hard, shiny gray nutlets ..... BORAGINACEAE (Lithospermum incisum)

21' Fruit a capsule

22. Perennial herb

23. Leaves ± sessile; capsule flat ..... POLYGALACEAE (Polygala californica)

23' Leaves petioled; capsule ovoid to oblong ..... VIOLACEAE (2) {G15,20,24}

22' Annual

24. Inflorescence or solitary flowers axillary; ovary chambers 5 ..... BALSAMINACEAE ([Impatiens capensis]) (2)

24' Inflorescence terminal (axillary); ovary chambers 2–3

25. Inflorescence a raceme ..... PLANTAGINACEAE (Antirrhinum, Dopatrium, Nuttallanthus)

25' Inflorescence a head ..... POLEMONIACEAE (Collomia grandiflora)