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ZYGOPHYLLACEAE CALTROP FAMILY

Duncan M. Porter

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, often armed; caudex present or not. Stem: branched; nodes often angled, swollen. Leaf: 1-compound, opposite, petioled; stipules persistent or not; leaflets entire. Inflorescence: flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; sepals 5, free, persistent or not; petals 5, free, generally spreading, twisted (corolla propeller-like) or not; stamens 10, appendaged on inside base or not; ovary superior, chambers (and lobes) 5–10, each with 1–several ovules, placentas axile. Fruit: capsule or splitting into 5–10 nutlets (= mericarps).
27 genera, ± 250 species: widespread especially in warm, dry regions; some cultivated (Guaiacum, lignum vitae; Tribulus, caltrop). [Sheahan & Chase 2000 Syst Bot 25:371–384] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Zygophyllaceae

FAGONIA
Perennial herb, shrub. Stem: < 1 m, spreading, angled or ridged. Leaf: palmately compound; stipules stiff, spine-tipped; leaflets 3, spine-tipped, terminal largest. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils. Flower: sepals deciduous; petals clawed, twisted, purple to pink, deciduous. Fruit: capsule, deeply 5-lobed, obovoid, loculicidal; style persistent; pedicel reflexed. Seed: 1 per chamber.
35 species: southwestern North America, southwestern South America, Canary I. to India, southwestern Africa. (Guy-Crescent Fagon, French botanist, chemist, physician to Louis XIV, 1638–1718) [Beier 2005 Syst Biodivers 3:221–263]
Unabridged species in genus: [35 species: southwestern North America, southwestern South America, Canary I. and Cape Verde I. to Afghanistan and India, southwestern Africa.]

Key to Fagonia

F. laevis Standl.
NATIVE
Shrub < 1 m, intricately branched. Leaf: leaflets 3–9 mm, generally < petiole, 1–4 mm wide. Flower: ± 1 cm wide. Fruit: 4–5 mm wide, minutely strigose or hairy, rarely glandular or glabrous; style 1–2 mm, wider at base.
Rocky hillsides, sandy washes; < 1200 m. Desert; to southwestern Utah, northwestern Mexico. Further study needed to determine if Fagonia longipes Standl. [Fagonia californica Benth. subsp. longipes (Standl.) Felger & C.H. Lowe] (minute, glandular hairs on fruits) represents a distinct evolutionary lineage. Mar–May, Nov–Jan [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fagonia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=25737, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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click for enlargement Fagonia laevis
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1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Fagonia laevis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.