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JUNCAGINACEAE ARROW-GRASS FAMILY

David J. Keil

Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or dense-tufted, terrestrial or aquatic. Leaf: generally ± basal, alternate, ± flat to narrow-cylindric; sheath open, generally liguled. Inflorescence: spike or generally ± scapose raceme; bracts 0. Flower: generally bisexual; perianth parts generally 6 in 2 whorls (0, 1) [3, 4], free, ± green or tinged ± red-purple; stamens 0, 1, 3, or 6, filaments short, ± fused to perianth; pistil 1, carpels 1, 6 [3, 4], ± fused, separating in fruit [or not], each with 1 chamber and 1 ovule or 3 carpels fertile, 3 sterile, placentas basal, stigmas generally ± sessile. Fruit: achene or generally mericarps.
3 genera, 30 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. [Haynes & Hellquist 2000 FNANM 22:43–46; von Mering & Kadereit 2010 in Seberg (ed.), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons, Aarhus Univ Press] Lilaea included in Triglochin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [von Mering, S., Kadereit, J.W. (2010): Phylogeny, systematics and recircumscription of Juncaginaceae - a cosmopolitan wetland family. In Seberg, O. (ed.), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press.]

TRIGLOCHIN ARROW-GRASS
Plant ± glabrous. Leaf: basal, ± tufted; sheath membranous; ligule tip entire to 2-lobed [0]. Flower: perianth parts generally adaxially concave; anthers ± sessile; stigma papillate or ± plumose. Fruit: achene or generally 3, 6 mericarps. Seed: 1, linear, ± flat or angled.
± 20 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. (Greek: 3 points, from fruits of some) TOXIC when fresh, from cyanogenic compounds.

Key to Triglochin

T. scilloides (Poir.) Mering & Kadereit FLOWERING-QUILLWORT
NATIVE
Annual, tufted, in youth submersed, in age ± emergent; roots fibrous. Leaf: 5–20(45) cm, 1–5 mm wide, ± elliptic to ± round in ×-section; ligule ± 1 mm, tip ± obtuse or ± notched. Inflorescence: ± scapose, generally emergent, ± dense spike of bisexual and sometimes staminate flowers, (2)6–20 cm, + 2 submersed, sessile pistillate flowers enclosed in leaf sheath at base of scape. Bisexual flower: perianth part 1, 2–3 mm; stamen 1; carpel 1, style generally short. Staminate flower: perianth part 1, 2–3 mm; stamen 1. Pistillate flower: perianth 0; carpel 1, style 6–20 cm, thread-like, stigma floating, head-like. Fruit: achene, 2–10 mm, ribbed, ± flat, ± winged in bisexual flowers, angled in pistillate flowers, tip truncate with off-center beak.
2n=12. Vernal pools, streams, ponds, lake margins; < 1700 m. North Coast, Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province; to western Canada, Montana, Mexico, Chile; naturalized in Australia, Iberian Peninsula. [Lilaea scilloides (Poir.) Hauman] Previously in Lilaea, yet highly nested in Triglochin, a paraphyletic genus made monophyletic by inclusion of this sp. (von Mering & Kadereit 2010). Mar–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Previously in Lilaea, sometimes in Lilaeaceae, but evidence from molecular biology, embryology, cytology, palynology indicates close relationship with Trigochlin, a paraphyletic genus made monophyletic by inclusion of this sp. (von Mering & Kadereit 2010).

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Triglochin, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=91083, accessed on Sep 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Triglochin scilloides Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.