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CHENOPODIACEAE GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae

DYSPHANIA MEXICAN TEA, WORMWOOD

Steven E. Clemants & Nuri Benet-Pierce

Annual to perennial herb, glandular, ± strongly scented. Stem: generally ± branched. Leaf: alternate, generally petioled; blade linear to ovate, entire to lobed, dentate or serrate, base generally tapered. Inflorescence: spikes, panicles, or dense axillary spheric clusters; bracts leaf-like, reduced, or 0. Flower: generally sessile; calyx lobes 1–5, fused or not, flat to keeled, persistent; stamens 1–5; stigmas 1–3. Fruit: achene, ± 1 mm; fruit wall free or attached to seed, thin, smooth to papillate, occasionally densely glandular. Seed: vertical or horizontal, red-brown to black.
± 32 species: temperate; some cultivated for food, medicine. (Greek: obscure, apparently for inconspicuous flowers) [Clemants & Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:267–275] Fruit generally required for identification.
Unabridged references: [Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46]

Key to Dysphania

D. anthelmintica (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants WORMSEED
NATURALIZED
Plant 37–75 cm. Leaf: blade 50–70 mm, lanceolate, dentate, with wide, straight teeth, generally densely glandular. Inflorescence: spikes or panicles, axillary, terminal; bracts 0 or < 2.5 mm. Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed, lobes enclosing fruit, glabrous. Fruit: ± 0.6 mm diam; wall free from seed, smooth, glandular. Seed: vertical and horizontal, black, bumpy.
Disturbed areas, riverbanks; < 1100 m. Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast; to Canada, eastern United States; native to eastern United States. Jun–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Chenopodium anthelminticum L.; Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum (L.) A. Gray.]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dysphania, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=88961, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dysphania anthelmintica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.