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GENTIANACEAE GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, ± persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). [Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae. Cambridge Univ Press] Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487; Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge Univ Press]

Key to Gentianaceae

ZELTNERA CENTAURY
Annual, glabrous. Stem: erect, generally branched. Leaf: cauline, opposite (sometimes also basal). Inflorescence: cyme. Flower: parts in 4s or generally 5s; calyx lobes >> tube (discounting thin membrane between lobes in Zeltnera davyi), appressed to corolla tube, generally not keeled; corolla salverform, white or generally pink, lobes <= tube, ± entire, scales 0, nectaries pits 0 (nectaries elsewhere 0); stamens often initially curved to 1 side, dehisced anthers spirally twisted; ovary sessile, style generally thread-like, deciduous, entire or cleft < 1 mm, stigmas 1, 2-lobed, or 2, stigmas or lobes wedge- to fan-shaped.
± 25 species: temperate, dry-mesic tropics, North America, South America. (L. Zeltner, N. Zeltner, Swiss botanists, b. 1938, 1934) [Mansion 2004 Taxon 53:719–740] Variable, difficult; further study needed, especially of chromosome numbers, hybridization. Zeltnera calycosa (Buckley) G. Mans. [Centaurium calycosum (Buckley) Fernald] not in California.
Unabridged references: [Mansion & Zeltner 2004 Amer J Bot 91:2069–2086]

Key to Zeltnera

Z. venusta (A. Gray) G. Mans. CALIFORNIA CENTAURY, CHARMING CENTAURY
NATIVE
Plant 3–50 cm. Leaf: generally cauline, 5–25 mm, narrow-ovate-oblong to lanceolate. Inflorescence: ± open; pedicels generally 4–25 mm. Flower: corolla (7)16–30 mm, lobes (2)5–20 mm, lanceolate to spoon-shaped or elliptic-obovate, tip obtuse to ± acute; stigmas 2.
2n=34. Dry grassland, scrub, chaparral, openings in woodland; < 1800 m. Klamath Ranges, s Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Joaquin Valley, Southwestern California (except n Channel Islands), East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert; to Baja California. [Centaurium venustum (A. Gray) B.L. Rob.] May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Centaurium venustum subsp. abramsii Munz; Zeltnera abramsii (Munz) G. Mans.]
Unabridged note: Highly variable. If recognized taxonomically, plants with narrow, acute corolla lobes assignable to Centaurium venustum subsp. abramsii Munz or Zeltnera abramsii (Munz) G. Mans. They occur sporadically throughout much of the range of Zeltnera venusta, but are more common northward. Intergradation appears to be extensive, but recognition as a variety may be appropriate. Some may be hybrids with Zeltnera trichantha. Plants in Southwestern California with pedicels to 50 mm, sometimes several-stemmed from base and/or with ± persistent basal leaves, may be hybrids with Zeltnera exaltata.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Zeltnera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81831, accessed on Nov 26 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Zeltnera venusta Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.