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TAMARICACEAE TAMARISK FAMILY

John F. Gaskin

Shrub, tree, much-branched. Stem: trunk bark rough. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire, often scale-like, generally with salt-excreting glands. Inflorescence: [spike], raceme, compound raceme, [flowers 1]; bracts scale-like. Flower: sepals 4–5, generally free, overlapping; petals 4–5, free, overlapping, generally attached below nectary; stamens 4–5[many], attached below or to nectary; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placentas basal or parietal, intrusive (simulating chambers) or not, ovules 2–many; styles [0,2]3–4[5]. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: many, hairy.
± 4 genera, 80 species: Eurasia, Africa. [Gaskin 2003 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 90:109–118] Often in saline habitats. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

TAMARIX TAMARISK, SALTCEDAR
Stem: young stems often ± pendent, slender, ± covered by leaves, hairy or glabrous. Leaf: small, awl- or scale-like, sessile, generally ± clasping stem, generally encrusted with excreted salt. Inflorescence: raceme or compound raceme on current or previous year's twigs; bract generally ± clasping. Flower: sepals 4–5, generally ± united at base, persistent; petals 4–5, free, deciduous to persistent, white, pink, red; stamens 4–5[15], free; nectary disk lobes 4–5[15], alternate or confluent with filaments; styles 3–4. Fruit: valves ± lanceolate. Seed: hairs in tuft at tip, > seed.
± 60 species: Eurasia, Africa. (Latin: Tamaris River, Spain) [Beauchamp et al. 2005 Plant & Soil 275:221–231] Invasive weeds with deep roots, especially along streams, irrigation canals. Most California species originally cultivated for ornamental, windbreaks; some hybridize. Tamarix africana Poir. excluded.
Unabridged references: [Baum 1967 Baileya 15:19–25; Beauchamp et al. 2005 Plant & Soil 275 (1–2):221–231; Di Tomaso 1998 Weed Technology 12:326–336]

Key to Tamarix

T. ramosissima Ledeb. SALTCEDAR
NATURALIZED
Shrub or tree, < 8 m. Leaf: 1.5–3.5 mm, lanceolate, acute to acuminate. Inflorescence: 2° raceme 1.5–7 cm; bract triangular, acuminate. Flower: sepals 5, 0.5–1 mm, ± ovate, minutely dentate; petals 5, 1.5–2 mm, obovate to elliptic; stamens 5, alternate nectary disk lobes, attached to edge of disk.
Common. Washes, streambanks; < 2000 m. Klamath Ranges, San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert; to Washington, Louisiana, northern Mexico; native to Asia. Very similar in morphology to Tamarix chinensis; hybridizes with Tamarix aphylla (rarely), Tamarix chinensis (commonly). Apr–Aug {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Tamarix parviflora
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Tamarix, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46076, accessed on Apr 17 2014

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click for enlargement Tamarix ramosissima
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© 2009 Thomas Stoughton

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.