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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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[Perennial herb] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1–5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short-shoots. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4–5; petals 0, 4–5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4–5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or ± inferior, chambers 2–4, 1–2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2–3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe.
50–52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtropics some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus). [Richardson et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1309–1324] —Scientific Editors: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arbor 45:439–463; Richardson et al. 2000 Kew Bull 55:311–341]
Key to Rhamnaceae
Shrub, small tree. Stem: branches alternate, flexible; winter bud scales 0. Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short-shoots, deciduous or not; stipules generally deciduous; petioled; blade veins prominent or not. Inflorescence: umbel or flowers 1 in axils. Flower: bisexual; hypanthium 1–3 mm wide, cup-shaped; sepals 5, erect, fleshy, keeled adaxially; petals 5, short-clawed; stamens 5; disk thin, adherent to hypanthium; ovary ± inferior, chambers 2–3, 1–2-ovuled, stigma 2–3-lobed. Fruit: drupe, 2–3-stoned.Key to Frangula
50 species: temperate, w. Med, Eurasia. (Frangible: capable of being broken) [Sawyer & Edwards 2007 Madroño 54:172–174] Often a subg. of Rhamnus; some of value in food, medicine.
Unabridged references: [Bolmgren & Oxelman 2004 Taxon 53:383–390; Wolf 1938 Rancho Santa Ana Bot Gard Monogr 1.]
Stem: bark gray; twigs green, gray, red, or dull brown, generally glabrous or densely hairy; terminal bud brown-hairy. Leaf: generally deciduous; petiole 5–25 mm; blade (50)80–150 mm, widely elliptic to obovate, generally thin, generally green, generally not papillate, glabrous to sparsely hairy, or blue- or green-gray, ± glaucous when fresh, papillate, densely hairy or velvety adaxially, light green, sparsely to densely hairy abaxially, base rounded, cordate, or tapered, tip obtuse to truncate or notched, margin entire to toothed, generally not wavy, veins prominent, 1°, 2°, 3° veins generally glabrous or sparsely hairy. Inflorescence: < 25-flowered; pedicel < 25 mm. Flower: hypanthium 3 mm wide. Fruit: 3-stoned, 5–10 mm, black. Bark and fruit TOXIC in excess, especially to children. [Rhamnus purshiana DC.] Cathartic drugs from bark. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Frangula californica subsp. ursina
Next taxon: Frangula purshiana subsp. annonifolia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Frangula, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=26043, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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