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Frangula purshiana subsp. annonifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RhamnaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUCKTHORN FAMILY
Habit: [Perennial herb] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1--5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short-shoots. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4--5; petals 0, 4--5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4--5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or +- inferior, chambers [1]2--4, 1--2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2--3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe.
Genera In Family: 50--52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtropics some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus).
eFlora Treatment Author: John O. Sawyer, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: FrangulaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: COFFEE BERRY
Habit: Shrub, small tree. Stem: branches alternate, flexible; winter bud scales 0. Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short-shoots, deciduous or not; stipules generally deciduous; petioled; blade veins prominent or not. Inflorescence: umbel or flowers 1 in axils. Flower: bisexual; hypanthium 1--3 mm wide, cup-shaped; sepals 5, erect, fleshy, keeled adaxially; petals 5, short-clawed; stamens 5; disk thin, adherent to hypanthium; ovary +- inferior, chambers 2--3, 1--2-ovuled, stigma 2--3-lobed. Fruit: drupe, 2--3[4]-stoned.
Species In Genus: 50 species: temperate, w. Med, Eurasia. Etymology: (Frangible: capable of being broken) Note: Often a subg. of Rhamnus; some of value in food, medicine.
Species: Frangula purshianaView Description 

Common Name: CASCARA
Stem: bark gray; twigs green, gray, red, or dull brown, generally glabrous or densely hairy; terminal bud brown-hairy. Leaf: generally deciduous; petiole 5--25 mm; blade (50)80--150 mm, widely elliptic to obovate, generally thin, generally green, generally not papillate, glabrous to sparsely hairy, or blue- or green-gray, +- glaucous when fresh, papillate, densely hairy or velvety adaxially, light green, sparsely to densely hairy abaxially, base rounded, cordate, or tapered, tip obtuse to truncate or notched, margin entire to toothed, generally not wavy, veins prominent, 1°, 2°, 3° veins generally glabrous or sparsely hairy. Inflorescence: < 25-flowered; pedicel < 25 mm. Flower: hypanthium 3 mm wide. Fruit: 3-stoned, 5--10 mm, black.
Toxicity: Bark and fruit TOXIC in excess, especially to children. Note: Cathartic drugs from bark.

Frangula purshiana subsp. annonifolia (Greene) Sawyer & S.W. Edwards
NATIVE
Habit: Shrub, < 5 m. Stem: twigs red to brown. Leaf: petiole 5--25 mm; blade thin, green, glabrous to sparsely hairy, base tapered, tip obtuse to truncate, margin irregularly toothed to entire.
Ecology: Conifer forest edges, streamsides, non-serpentine; Elevation: < 2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR, n&c SN; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun
Synonyms: Rhamnus annonifolia Greene; Rhamnus purshiana DC. var. annonifolia (Greene) Jeps.
Unabridged Note: Greene used Anona P. Miller as the basis of the epithet of his new sp. That name has since been replaced by Annona L.. A second orthographic correction, based on the Article 60 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. Regnum Vegetabile 138. 2000), recommends replacing "ae" with "i" as compounding forms, resulting in the spelling "annonifolia" (Sawyer & Edwards Madroño 54:172--174. 2007).
eFlora Treatment Author: John O. Sawyer, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: John O. Sawyer, Jr. 2016. Frangula purshiana subsp. annonifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=85264, accessed on December 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 07, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Frangula purshiana subsp. annonifolia:
KR, CaR, n&c SN;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.