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CALYCANTHACEAE SWEET-SHRUB or CALYCANTHUS FAMILY

George P. Johnson & Fosiée Tahbaz

Shrub, deciduous [evergreen], aromatic. Leaf: opposite, simple, entire; stipules 0; petiole short. Inflorescence: flowers 1, terminal on short branches. Flower: bisexual, radial; receptacle hollow; parts generally many, spirally arranged; perianth parts ± petal-like, grading into bracts below; stamens on top of receptacle, smaller, sterile inward, filaments < anthers [0]; pistils simple, on inner face of receptacle, 2-ovuled, style thread-like, exserted from receptacle. Fruit: achenes many, included in ± leathery receptacle.
3 genera, ± 10 species: North America, China, Australia; Calycanthus, Chimonanthus cultivated as ornamental, for fragrance. [Zhou et al. 2006 Molec Phylogen Evol 39:1–15] Notable for disjunctions. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

CALYCANTHUS
Flower: perianth maroon or red-brown, inner parts shorter.
2 species: California, eastern United States. (Greek: cup flower, from hollow receptacle)

C. occidentalis Hook. & Arn. SWEET-SHRUB, SPICEBUSH
NATIVE
Erect, 1–3+ m, ± rounded. Leaf: petiole 3–10 mm; blade 5–15 cm, ovate- to lance-oblong or ovate-elliptic, firm, base generally rounded (cordate), tip acute (obtuse), abaxially ± glabrous to ± hairy, adaxially ± scabrous. Flower: ± 5 cm diam; perianth ± fleshy, hairy; filaments < 1 mm, anthers 4–5 mm. Fruit: receptacle ovoid (bell-shaped), with scars of perianth parts; achenes 7–10 mm, ± velvety, margins granular.
n=11. Moist, shady places, canyons, streamsides; generally < 1500 m. se Klamath Ranges, s Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, c&s High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley (Kings River floodplain, eastern of Fresno), apparently naturalized n Peninsular Ranges (Palomar Mtns). Mar–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Calycanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16812, accessed on Dec 18 2014

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click for enlargement Calycanthus occidentalis
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2006 Matt Below

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Calycanthus occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.