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Petalonia fascia (Müller) Kuntze

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drawing of Petalonia fascia
unilocular organs after Wynne 1969a, plurilocular sorus after Setchell and Gardner 1925
Gametophyte: Ilea fascia (Müller) Fries, Phyllitis fascia (Müller) Kützing, Petalonia debilis (C. Agardh) Derbès et Solier; sporophyte: Ralfsia californica Setchell et Gardner, Stragularia clavata (Harvey) Hamel
Gametophyte: Abbott and Hollenberg 1976, p. 201, fig. 163 (habit); Kogame 1997, p. 390, fig. 1 (photo: habit), p. 391, figs. 2–6 (photos: gametes and fusion); Scagel 1967, p. 111, fig. 41a (x-section, vegetative blade, fig. 41b (habit); Setchell and Gardner 1925, pl. 44, figs. 68–71, 73 (x-section, blades with plurilocular organs); Wynne 1969a, p. 20, figs. 6a–e (germlings), fig. 6f (x-section, sterile blade), fig. 6g (x-section, blade with plurilocular organs), pls. 6, 7 (photos: cultures derived from field blades), pls. 8–11 (photos: cultures derived from field crusts), pl. 12 (photos: habit); Wynne 1972a, p. 135, fig. 23, p. 138, fig. 24, p. 140, figs. 26, 27 (development in culture). Sporophyte: Kogame 1997, p. 391, fig. 7 (photo: zygote), figs. 8–10 (photos: development of discoid sporophyte from zygote), p. 394, fig. 17 (photo: habit, field crust), fig. 18 (photo: squashed field crust); Setchell and Gardner 1925, pl. 36, fig. 22 (vertical section, field-collected crust with unilocular sporangia); Wynne 1969a, p. 22, fig. 7 (germlings), p. 23, fig. 8a (radial section, margin of cultured crust), fig. 8b (vertical section, cultured crust with unilocular sporangia), pl. 13, figs. a–c (photos: vertical sections, field crust with unilocular sporangia), fig. d (photo: vertical section, cultured crust with unilocular sporangia); Wynne 1972a, p. 138, fig. 25, p. 140, fig. 27 (development in culture) Display references
Pacific Coast Distribution:
Gametophyte: Alaska (Amchitka I., Aleutian Is.: Lebednik and Palmisano 1977, p. 360; to Annette I., near Ketchikan: Saunders 1901, p. 421); Langara I., Queen Charlotte Is., British Columbia (Hawkes et al. 1979, p. 94) to Monterey Peninsula, Calif. (Smith 1944, p. 126); Monterey Co., Calif. (Pt. Sur: Silva 1133 in UC; Lucia: Silva 2854 in UC); San Luis Obispo Co., Calif. (Cayucos to Shell Beach: Sparling 1977, p. 39); Santa Barbara Co., Calif. (Government Pt. and Goleta: Murray and Littler 1989, p. 67); Los Angeles Co., Calif. (Malibu and White's Pt.: Murray and Littler 1989, p. 67); San Diego, Calif. (Dawson 1945c, p. 30; Stewart 1991, p. 46); Baja Calif. (Punta Descanso: Dawson 1953b, p. 117; Bahía Todos Santos: L. Aguilar Rosas 1982, p. 30; Punta Banda: Devinny 1978, p. 358; Cabo Colnett: Dawson 1945f, p. 60; Isla Magdalena: Dawson 1960a, p. 36). Channel Is., Calif. (San Miguel I., Anacapa I., Santa Barbara I., Santa Catalina I., Murray and Littler 1989, p. 67; Santa Cruz I.: Apt et al. 1988, p. 20; San Clemente I.: Murray 1974, p. 41); Sporophyte: Torch Bay, southeast Alaska (Dethier 1981, p. 334; Washington (San Juan I.: Dethier 1981, p. 333; Crescent Beach, Clallam Co.: Wynne 1969a, p. 21); Fort Ross, Sonoma Co., Calif. (Kjeldsen 1989, p. [32]); Marin Co., Calif. (Duxbury Reef: Kjeldsen 1995, p. 29); San Mateo Co., Calif. (Moss Beach and Pillar Point: Wynne 1969a, p. 21) Display references
Life History:
facultative alternation of heteromorphic phases, with dioecious erect blades producing isogametes in plurilocular organs and the zygote developing into a crustose sporophyte bearing unilocular sporangia; zooids from unilocular sporangia developing into blades; crusts rarely producing blades directly; unfused gametes developing parthenogenetically into crusts (Kogame 1997; Shannon et al. 1988b; Wynne 1972a, p. 139; Wynne 1972b, p. 133; Hsiao 1969; Wynne 1969a, p. 17) Display references
G. Cho et al. 2001 Display references
Cole 1967b, p. 522 Display references
Kluijver 1991, p. 331; Williams and Herbert 1989; Farrell 1988, p. 194; Shannon et al. 1988a; Shannon et al. 1988b Dethier 1987; Dethier 1984, p. 106; Thom 1984a, p. 55; Turner 1983a, p. 63; Littler and Arnold 1982, p. 309; Dethier 1981; Lubchenco and Cubit 1980, p. 677; Thom 1980a, p. 9; Devinny 1978, p. 358; Murray and Littler 1978, p. 509; Prange 1978, p. 175; Prange 1976, p. 94; Littler and Murray 1975, p. 281; Murray and Littler 1974, p. 72; Roeleveld et al. 1974; Lüning and Dring 1973; Rhodes and Connell 1973; R. Lee 1965a, p. 15; R. Lee 1965b, p. 113 Display references
Erythrocladia irregularis
Markager and Sand-Jensen 1996; Hsiao 1969 Display references
Cole and Lin 1970 Display references
R. Schmid et al. 1994; Markager 1993; Wiltens et al. 1978, p. 2790; Hsiao 1969 Display references
Ragan and Glombitza 1986, p. 187; Ragan and Jensen 1979; Sanders 1979, p. 97 Display references
Economic Applications:
Mumford 1980, p. 16 Display references

Pl=plurilocular; U=unilocular; S=sterile
Pl  xxxxxxxxxx   Gametophyte: common, on rocks in pools in low intertidal; epiphytic on Phyllospadix/Zostera, in moderately to fully exposed habitats. Scagel 1957, p. 89. Scagel 1973, p. 134. Sporophyte: crust in mid/low intertidal. Dethier 1981, p. 333. Display references
U xxx  xx  xxx    
S xxxx          xxx
Pl      xx  xxx  x   Gametophyte: common, epiphytic and on rocks at the margins of tidepools in the mid/low intertidal. Doty 1947, p. 36. Sanborn and Doty 1947, p. 29. Markham and Celestino 1977, p. 259. Sporophyte: not found. Display references
S          x            
Pl      xxx  x  x     Gametophyte: common, on surf-swept rocks of the upper and mid intertidal, often in pools. Dawson 1965a, p. 17. Sporophyte: not found. Display references
S      xxxxxxx    
Pl        x               Gametophyte: common, on rocks in pools in the high intertidal or epiphytic on Phyllospadix in the low intertidal. Kjeldsen 1995, p. 27. Sporophyte: not found. Display references
S                    x  
Pl          x          x Gametophyte: common, on rocks/in pools in upper intertidal in exposed habitats. Johansen 1966a, p. 100. Kjeldsen 1995, p. 27. Sporophyte: crust in mid/high intertidal. Hollenberg 1969, p. 291. Wynne 1969a, p. 21. Kjeldsen 1995, p. 29. Display references
U        x          x  
S  xxxxx        x  
Pl                  xxx Gametophyte: common, on rocks as clusters of greenish-brown linear-lanceolate blades throughout the tidal range. Smith 1944, p. 126. Silva 1979, p. 336. Sporophyte: crust in mid to high intertidal. Hollenberg 1969, p. 291. Display references
U  xxxx    xx      
S                    x  

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Page dated: Mon Feb 13 21:24:26 2006
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