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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

MADIA

TARWEED

Annual or perennial herb, generally densely glandular, aromatic
Stems 1–several, generally simple below, ± branched above
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally linear to lanceolate, entire to slightly toothed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, generally peduncled, few–many; phyllaries generally 1–20, free, enclosing (and falling with) ray achenes; receptacle ± flat, generally glabrous; chaff scales generally ± fused, in ring between ray and disk flowers
Ray flowers generally 1–20, sometimes minute; ligules 2–3-lobed, generally yellow
Disk flowers 1–many, sometimes staminate; corollas yellow or maroon; anther tips triangular-ovate; style tips linear to oblong, acute, bristly
Fruit club-shaped or obovoid; ray achenes compressed, thickened, or 3-angled (1 angle toward center of head), ridged, sometimes beaked; pappus 0 or of short scales; disk achenes ± symmetric; pappus 0 or of 4–10 scales or bristles
Species in genus: 21 species: w North America, sw South America
Recent taxonomic note: *See revised taxonomy of Baldwin 1999 Novon 9:462–471.
Etymology: (Chilean name)
Reference: [Nelson & Nelson 1980 Brittonia 32:323–325]

Native

M. sativa Molina

COAST TARWEED

Annual 2–24 dm, ± strongly ill-scented
Stems simple or branches stiff, ascending, very leafy, soft-glandular-hairy throughout, generally very sticky; glands yellow to black
Leaves: lower 2–15 cm, linear to lanceolate, entire or toothed, finely appressed- to spreading-hairy, densely glandular to ± glandless; upper reduced or well developed, hairy, densely glandular
Inflorescence: heads sessile to short-peduncled, in dense cymes or panicle-like clusters; involucre 7–15 mm, ovoid or urn-shaped; phyllaries soft-hairy or bristly, generally densely glandular, tips long, flat; chaff scales strongly fused
Ray flowers 6–9, generally 8; corolla tubes 1.5–4 mm, ligules 1.5–4 mm, ± = tube, greenish yellow, sometimes red-tinged
Disk flowers 11–14, fertile; corollas 1.7–5 mm; anthers black
Fruits alike, 2.5–5 mm, strongly compressed side-to-side, weakly bowed out, glabrous, black or dark brown, sometimes mottled; beak 0; pappus 0
Chromosomes: 2n=32
Ecology: Coastal grassland
Elevation: < 950 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, n Baja California; also sw S.America
Synonyms: M. capitata Nutt
Closely related to, partly interfertile with M. gracilis.

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bioregional map for MADIA%20sativa being generated
 
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