|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual, biennial, perennial herb; sap milky
Stems 310 dm, branched
Leaves basal and cauline, reduced upward; lower 12 dm, toothed or pinnately lobed, wing-petioled; middle sessile, sometimes clasping; upper greatly reduced
Inflorescence: heads ligulate, showy, terminal and axillary, lateral sessile; involucre ± cylindric; phyllaries in 2 series, hardened in basal half, outer short, spreading, inner elongate, erect; receptacle naked
Flowers many; ligules blue to purple, readily withering
Fruit oblong, glabrous, 5-angled; pappus of minute blunt scales
Species in genus: 8 species: Eur, Medit, Africa
Etymology: (Old Arabic name)
Perennial < 1 m, from deep, woody taproot; herbage glabrous to short-bristly, especially near base
Stems erect; branches stout, ascending
Leaves: lower oblong to elliptic in outline, subentire to coarsely pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: peduncles of terminal heads not thickened
Flowers: ligules blue (pink, white)
Fruit 1.52.5 mm; pappus scales < 0.5 mm
Ecology: Common. Roadsides, waste places
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, n Desert Mountains (Panamint Mtns)
Distribution outside California: widespread in N.America; native to Europe
Flowering time: JunOct
Roasted roots used as coffee flavoring or substitute.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|