|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual or perennial herb, ± mealy (hairs drying as minute white scales); sap milky
Leaves mostly basal, generally linear to (ob)lanceolate, generally variably entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads solitary, ligulate, ± nodding in bud; involucre generally fusiform to spheric; phyllaries in 2several series, outer overlapping, inner often ± black-hairy; receptacle naked
Flowers 5many; corollas white to orange, often reddish below, ligules = to >> involucre, readily withering
Fruit cylindric to fusiform, generally square-topped, not beaked; ribs ± 10, ± scabrous; pappus of generally 5many ± lanceolate, bristle-tipped scales
Etymology: (Greek: small chicory)
Reference: [Chambers Contr Dudley Herb Stanford U: 1955 4:207312 & 1957 5:5768]
Hybridization common.Self-pollinating (annual) or self-incompatible and ± complex (perennial herb).
Annual 560 cm, scapose
Leaf 325 cm
Inflorescence: involucre 716 mm; outer phyllaries deltate, << inner
Flowers 5100+; ligules yellow or white
Fruit 310 mm, gray to brown or blackish, often dark-spotted; outermost fruits generally hairy; pappus scales < or = 5, 0.56.5 mm, silvery to blackish, often hairy, bristles 18.5 mm, ± strongly barbed
Ecology: Inland clay soils, grassland, often near vernal pools or serpentine outcrops
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Channel Islands
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Highly variable; vars. intergrade.