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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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[Perennial] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny.
Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short- shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1–5-ribbed from base.
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short- shoots.
Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4–5; petals 0, 4–5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4–5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or ± inferior, chambers 2–4, 1–2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2–3-lobed.
Fruit: capsule, drupe.
50–52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtrop; some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus). [Richardson et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1309–1324] —Scientific Editors: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arbor 45:439–463; Richardson et al. 2000 Kew Bull 55:311–341]
Key to Rhamnaceae
Shrub, small tree.Key to Frangula
Stem: branches alternate, flexible; winter bud scales 0.
Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short- shoots, deciduous or not; stipules generally deciduous; petioled; blade veins prominent or not.
Inflorescence: umbel or flowers 1 in axils.
Flower: bisexual; hypanthium 1–3 mm wide, cup-shaped; sepals 5, erect, fleshy, keeled adaxially; petals 5, short-clawed; stamens 5; disk thin, adherent to hypanthium; ovary ± inferior, chambers 2–3, 1–2-ovuled, stigma 2–3-lobed.
Fruit: drupe, 2–3-stoned.
50 species: temperate, w. Med, Eurasia. (Frangible: capable of being broken) [Sawyer & Edwards 2007 Madroño 54:172–174] Often a subg. of Rhamnus; some of value in food, medicine.
Unabridged references: [Bolmgren & Oxelman 2004 Taxon 53:383–390; Wolf 1938 Rancho Santa Ana Bot Gard Monogr 1.]
Shrub, < 2 m.
Stem: bark red to bright gray; twigs red to gray; terminal bud hairy.
Leaf: generally scattered along stem, deciduous; petiole 2–12 mm; blade 15–80 mm, narrowly elliptic to obovate, thin, green or gray, generally glabrous to finely hairy or abaxially puberulent on midrib, veins, acute to rounded at base, tip, margin finely toothed to entire, veins not prominent.
Inflorescence: 4–15-flowered; pedicel 1–12 mm.
Flower: hypanthium 2 mm wide.
Fruit: 2(3)-stoned, 12 mm, black. [Rhamnus rubra Greene] 1 other subsp., in NV. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Rhamnus californica var. rubra (Greene) Trel.; Rhamnus californica var. obtusissima (Greene) Jeps., in part, misappl.]
Unabridged note: Frangula rubra subsp. nevadensis (A. Nelson) Kartesz & Gandhi in NV. The Frangula rubra complex is a group of closely related plants that needs study. In NV they reach only Douglas and Washoe counties. C.B. Wolf's descriptions (1938) provide only a single distinct character to separate the subspp., but field and herbarium study argue for the recognition of infraspecific taxa even with the intermediates and variants. The range of Frangula rubra subsp. obtusissima, in c SN, is central, and Wolf reported "intergradations in various degrees" between it and all the other subspp. Furthermore, Frangula rubra subsp. yosemitana and Frangula californica subsp. cuspidata grow along the east side of SN and can be easily confused. Plants of both taxa can be deciduous, but Wolf noted differences in pubescence and in leaf margin characters to differentiate the 2, although both are variable throughout their ranges.
Previous taxon: Frangula purshiana subsp. ultramafica
Next taxon: Frangula rubra subsp. modocensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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