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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Specimen numbers are hyperlinked to records in the Consortium of California Herbaria data view where possible. Taxa are hyperlinked to entries in the Jepson Interchange via the "[Online Interchange]" link.



Robert Patterson, family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, vine. Leaf: simple or compound, cauline (or most basal), alternate or opposite; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cymes, heads, clusters, or flower 1; bracts in involucres or not. Flower: sepals generally 5, fused at base, translucent membrane generally connecting lobes, torn by fruit; corolla generally 5-lobed, radial or bilateral, salverform to bell-shaped, throat often well defined; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, attached at >= 1 level, filaments of >= 1 length, pollen white, yellow, blue, or red; ovary superior, chambers generally 3, style 1, stigmas generally 3. Fruit: capsule. Seed: 1–many, when wetted swelling or not, gelatinous or not.
26 genera, 314 species: America, northern Europe, northern Asia; some cultivated (Cantua, Cobaea (cup-and-saucer vine), Collomia, Gilia, Ipomopsis, Linanthus, Phlox). [Porter & Johnson 2000 Aliso 19:55–91] Leptodactylon moved to Linanthus. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Polemoniaceae

1. Leaves pinnate-compound ..... POLEMONIUM

1' Leaves 0 or simple, entire to deeply pinnate- or palmate-lobed

2. Leaves 0; filaments < 0.5 mm ..... GYMNOSTERIS

2' Leaves present; filaments > 0.5 mm

3. Perennial herb, subshrub, woody above ground, at least below (see also per Aliciella, Collomia, Phlox)

4. Calyx lobes unequal; inflorescence, bracts, calyx with woolly tufted hairs ..... ERIASTRUM (3)

4' Calyx lobes equal; inflorescence, bracts, calyx with hairs or not, but without woolly tufted hairs

5. Leaves alternate

6. Inflorescence head-like; leaf lobes not rigid, not sharp-tipped; stamens exserted ..... Ipomopsis congesta

6' Inflorescence not head-like; leaf lobes rigid, sharp-tipped; stamens included ..... LINANTHUS (6)

5' Leaves opposite, at least on lower stem

7. Stamens attached at > 1 level; leaves not lobed ..... PHLOX (2)

7' Stamens attached at 1 level; leaves lobed

8. Calyx 5-parted; corolla glandular abaxially, open in day; leaves palmate-lobed, lobes pliable ..... LEPTOSIPHON (3)

8' Calyx generally 6-parted; corolla glabrous abaxially, open generally at night; leaves pinnate-lobed, lobes rigid — San Jacinto Mountains ..... Linanthus jaegeri

3' Annual or rhizomed, short-lived perennial herb, generally not woody above ground except sometimes for parts of woody caudex

9. Calyx membrane narrow, spout-like distally ..... COLLOMIA

9' Calyx membrane narrow to wide, not spout-like distally

10. Leaves cauline, opposite below, alternate or opposite above

11. Stamens attached at > 1 level; leaves not lobed

12. Annual; seeds gelatinous when wet ..... MICROSTERIS

12' Perennial herb; seeds not gelatinous when wet ..... PHLOX (2)

11' Stamens attached at 1 level; leaves palmate-lobed

13. Flowers in head subtended by bracts or in small clusters

14. Corolla salverform to funnel-shaped, tube long-exserted ..... LEPTOSIPHON (3)

14' Corolla bell- or short-funnel-shaped, tube generally included ..... LINANTHUS (6)

13' Flowers in small clusters

15. Pedicel > 2 mm, if 0 then corolla with hairy ring inside tube; corolla generally open daytime, without red marks at throat ..... LEPTOSIPHON (3)

15' Pedicel 0–2 mm; corolla without hairy ring inside tube; corolla generally open at night, if open daytime then with red marks at throat (see also Linanthus dichotomus subsp. meridianus) ..... LINANTHUS (6)

10' Leaves in rosette and/or cauline, alternate or ± opposite below, alternate above

16. Calyx lobes unequal

17. Inflorescence open, flowers in groups of 1–3 ..... ERIASTRUM (3)

17' Inflorescence dense, flowers in groups of generally > 3

18. Inflorescence woolly ..... ERIASTRUM (3)

18' Inflorescence hairy or not, but not woolly ..... NAVARRETIA (2)

16' Calyx lobes equal

19. Lower cauline leaves palmate-lobed

20. Leaves petioled, sinuses between lobes not to leaf midrib ..... IPOMOPSIS (3)

20' Leaves sessile, sinuses between lobes ± to leaf midrib ..... LINANTHUS (6)

19' Lower cauline leaves simple to pinnate-lobed

21. Leaf teeth, calyx lobes bristle-tipped

22. Corolla radial; leaf hairs branched; filaments equal ..... LANGLOISIA

22' Corolla bilateral; leaf hairs simple; filaments unequal ..... LOESELIASTRUM

21' Leaf teeth, calyx lobes with short or long point or not, but not bristle-tipped

23. Corolla rotate, bell-shaped, or short-funnel-shaped, lobes > tube

24. Calyx lobes >> tube, margins scarious, rarely ciliate ..... LINANTHUS (6)

24' Calyx lobes < tube, margins scarious, not ciliate

25. Lobes of basal leaves >> 2, pinnately arranged ..... ALICIELLA (2)

25' Lobes of basal leaves 0(1–2) ..... LATHROCASIS (2)

23' Corolla funnel-shaped or salverform, lobes < tube

26. Calyx lobes >> tube (± free to base), margins not scarious, rarely ciliate ..... LINANTHUS (6)

26' Calyx lobes <= tube, margins scarious, not ciliate

27. Seeds 1 per chamber, upper leaves linear, simple, entire; plants without skunky odor ..... LATHROCASIS (2)

27' Seeds generally > 1 per chamber, if 1 then upper leaves ± palmate-compound, plants with skunky odor

28. Seeds not gelatinous when wet ..... ALICIELLA (2)

28' Seeds gelatinous when wet

29. Inflorescence dense, flowers generally sessile

30. Leaves 2-pinnate-lobed or -dissected, margins generally toothed; corolla generally funnel-shaped, throat well developed ..... GILIA (2)

30' Leaves entire to pinnate-lobed, margins not toothed; corolla narrowly funnel-shaped to salverform, throat 0 or not well developed

31. Leaves pinnate-lobed or linear, entire; corolla radial to bilateral ..... IPOMOPSIS (3)

31' Leaves lance-elliptic, entire or dentate; corolla ± bilateral ..... Loeseliastrum depressum

29' Inflorescence generally open, flowers pedicelled, if subsessile then inflorescence not dense

32. Seeds medium to dark brown or black; leaves basal and cauline, upper cauline ± palmate-lobed with terminal lobe width > lateral, or entire, similar to lower cauline (or 2-pinnate-lobed)

33. Hairs, or at least some, > 0.5 mm, often longer, glandular or not, generally > 1 type or length throughout; cotyledons spoon-shaped ..... ALLOPHYLLUM

33' Hairs < 0.3 mm, glandular, ± 1 type or length throughout; cotyledons linear ..... NAVARRETIA (2)

32' Seeds ± green, tan, light brown, or light gray; leaves generally in basal rosette, upper cauline 0 or simple, entire, different from basal, or pinnate-lobed with terminal lobe width <= lateral

34. Corolla salverform, radial, or funnel-shaped, bilateral ..... IPOMOPSIS (3)

34' Corolla bell- or funnel-shaped, ± radial

35. Hairs on basal leaves nonglandular, white cobwebby (at least in axils), or white and sharply bent, or translucent, then inflorescence glands long-stalked, diam < stalk (hair) ..... GILIA (2)

35' Hairs on basal leaves minutely glandular, translucent; inflorescence glands subsessile, diam > stalk (hair) ..... SALTUGILIA


Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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