Jepson eFlora: Key page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Monardella

View taxon page for Monardella

(For a list of species in Monardella, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Calyx generally >= 12 mm; corolla  1/5–1/2 tubesubshrub

2. Corolla 15–30 mm, white to cream-yellow or rose-tinged, tube cylindrical, 0.5–2 mm diam at tip, lobes calyx (10)12–15 mm; anthers < 1 mm ..... M. nana

2' Corolla 35–45 mm, red-orange to yellow, tube , 1.5–3 mm diam at tip, lobes ; calyx 20–25 mm; anthers 1.2–1.5 mm ..... M. macrantha

3. Stem sparsely hairy;  triangular-ovate, sparsely to densely hairy,  ..... subsp. hallii

3' Stem glabrous to sparsely hairy; leaf  to , ± glabrous, not ciliate ..... subsp. macrantha

1' Calyx <= 12 mm; corolla lobes > 1/2 tube; annual to shrub

4. Leaf margin wavy, generally ±  (occasionally ± serrate)

5. Leaf < 10 mm, narrowly ovate to triangular-ovate; subalpine forest; s SNH ..... M. beneolens

5' Leaf >= 10 mm,  to (ob)ovate; dunes, openings in <<97>>coastal scrub<<97>> and woodland; CCo, SnFrB, s SCoRO

6. Annual; main stem generally branching below middle ..... M. sinuata

7. Plant compact; stem stout, generally highly branched; bracts dark-tipped, dark-veined, conspicuously spreading-hairy, especially along veins; distal-most stem  spreading-hairy; leaves generally weakly wavy; n CCo (Monterey Co. and n), SnFrB ..... subsp. nigrescens

7' Plant ; stem slender, sparingly branched; bracts generally not dark-tipped or dark-veined (occasionally purple), sparsely short-hairy; distal-most stem internode ± glabrous; leaves weakly to strongly wavy; s CCo (San Luis Obispo Co. and s), s SCoRO, extirpated in w SCo ..... subsp. sinuata

6' Subshrub to shrub; main stem branching above middle ..... M. undulata

8. Plant  to mounded, moderately to densely hairy; leaves appearing pale green, oblanceolate to (ob)ovate, , largest 5–15 mm wide; main stem lateral and terminal branches erect, short, > 1.5 mm diam; plant of active dunes ..... subsp. crispa

8' Plant ± erect, sparsely to moderately hairy; leaves green, linear to narrowly (ob)lanceolate,  to obtuse, largest 2–7(8) mm wide; main stem ± erect; lateral and terminal branches ascending, < 1.5 mm diam; plant of ± stabilized to semi-stabilized dunes

9. Stem, leaves sparsely to moderately hairy; flower cluster 18–30 mm wide; bracts  to ovate, acute to obtuse-acuminate, generally 5–9 mm wide; lateral, terminal branches generally 1–1.5 mm diam; Santa Barbara Co. ..... subsp. arguelloensis

9' Stem, leaves sparsely hairy; flower cluster 10–20 mm wide; bracts lanceolate to narrowly ovate, , generally 3–5 mm wide; lateral, terminal branches generally < 1 mm diam; San Luis Obispo Co. ..... subsp. undulata

4' Leaf margin slightly or not wavy, entire to 

10. Annual; main stem 1; flower clusters several to many per main stem, in panicle-like array

11. Bract lateral veins ± perpendicular to midvein, areas between veins transparent to translucent

12. Stem slender; flower cluster 10–15 mm wide; bracts 10–15 mm, narrowly ovate, veins stout; narrow opaque band present beside  veins; NCoR, SnFrB, SCoRI ..... M. douglasii

12' Stem stout; flower cluster 20–30 mm wide; bracts 15–30 mm, widely ovate; bract veins slender; all of bract except veins transparent to translucent; n&c SNF ..... M. venosa

11' Bract lateral veins ± parallel to midvein, areas between veins ± opaque, membranous, or scarious

13. Bracts not white; calyx lobes not white; corolla rose or purple (white)

14. Bracts spreading-hairy, hairs > 1 mm ..... M. pringlei

14' Bracts appressed-hairy, hairs < 1 mm ..... M. breweri

15. Bracts generally broadly ovate, strongly acuminate, not or only sparsely cross-veined, generally purple-tinted; SnFrB, SCoR, WTR ..... subsp. breweri

15' Bracts ± lance-ovate or narrower, acute, weakly to strongly cross-veined, occasionally purple tinted; KR, CaRF, s CaRH, SN, s SCoRO, SW

16. Terminal flower clusters generally 18–25 mm wide; bracts generally 8–10 per flower cluster, > calyx; calyx generally 6.5–7.5 mm; mid-cauline leaves generally 40–60 mm; flowers generally 15–75 per cluster; plant 9–65 cm ..... subsp. lanceolata

16' Terminal flower clusters generally 5–15 mm wide; bracts generally 5–7 per flower cluster, <= calyx; calyx 6–7 mm; mid-cauline leaves generally 10–30 mm; flowers 3–25 per cluster; plant 9–30 cm

17. Conical glands abundant on stem; calyx sinuses hairy; s SnGb ..... subsp. glandulifera

17' Conical glands 0 on stem; calyx sinuses generally not hairy; s PR ..... subsp. microcephala

13' Bracts at least partly white; calyx lobes,  tips, or margins white; corolla white

18. Calyx lobe tips awl-like, ; bracts white throughout (outermost rarely green-tinted); stamens  ..... M. leucocephala

18' Calyx lobe tips acute, erect; bracts partly white; stamens slightly 

19. Bracts conspicuously cross-veined between major parallel veins; flower clusters generally 12–25 mm wide, generally closely subtended by leaves,  inconspicuous; main stem 1 or generally branching above middle; SNF, e SnJV (extirpated in northern part of range) ..... M. candicans

19' Bracts not or inconspicuously cross-veined; flower clusters 10–20 mm wide, peduncle 1–3 cm; main stem 1 or generally branching below middle (pls in se SNF generally branching distally); se SN, n TR, nw DMoj ..... M. exilis

10' Subshrub to shrub; main stem 1–many; flower clusters 1–few (several) per main stem

20. Abaxial leaf face ± white to ash-gray, short- to long-hairy, felt-like, or woolly, considerably whiter than adaxial face

21. Stem and leaf hairs short, < 0.3 mm, dense, straight; corolla lavender to purple or rose

22. Flower clusters generally >= 20 mm wide; calyx 8–12 mm; leaves 20–40 mm, green adaxially; corolla lavender to purple; e SnGb ..... M. saxicola

22' Flower clusters generally <= 20 mm wide; calyx 7–8 mm; leaves 5–20(30) mm, many ± white (pl appearing pale); corolla rose to purple; s NCoRI ..... M. viridis

21' Stem and leaf hairs generally > 0.5 mm, generally woolly, curved to curled on abaxial leaf face; corolla white to lavender

23. Branched hairs abundant on stem – s CCo, s SCoRO (Santa Barbara to s Monterey cos.) ..... M. villosa subsp. obispoensis (2)

23' Branched hairs 0–few on stem

24. Leaf ovate to widely triangular-ovate, base generally  ..... M. villosa subsp. franciscana (2)

24' Leaf lance-linear to narrowly ovate, base  ..... M. hypoleuca

25. Leaf ± flat or margins weakly rolled-under, 7–19 mm wide, narrowly ovate; adaxial leaf face flat; corolla lavender; s SCoRO, WTR ..... subsp. hypoleuca

25' Leaf margins weakly to strongly rolled-under, 3–9(12) mm wide, lance-linear to lanceolate; adaxial leaf face generally convex; corolla white; PR

26. Hairs on adaxial leaf face sparse to 0, on stem sparse, short, or inconspicuous; nw PR ..... subsp. intermedia

26' Hairs on adaxial leaf face ± dense, on stem long, spreading, conspicuous; sw PR (San Diego Co.) ..... subsp. lanata

20' Abaxial leaf face ± green, ± gray, silvery, or purple, not considerably whiter than adaxial face

27. Plant of DMoj with main inflorescence axis generally 3–several-branched and flower clusters small, 7–20(25) mm wide

28. Stem with conical glands ..... M. eremicola

28' Stem lacking conical glands

29. Stem with nonglandular hairs > 0.25 mm and glandular hairs 0.01–0.03 mm ..... M. robisonii

29' Stem with nonglandular hairs < 0.25 mm, glandular hairs 0

30. Bracts 8–9 mm; calyx hairs glandular (0.01–0.02 mm) and nonglandular (0.2–0.3 mm); stem 12–40 cm; 1400–1650 m; s-c DMoj (Ord and Rodman mtns) ..... M. boydii

30' Bracts 10–11 mm; calyx hairs glandular (0.01–0.1 mm) only; stem 30–60 cm; 800–1500 m; e DMtns ..... M. mojavensis

27' Plant of CA-FP or GB, or, if of DMoj, then main inflorescence axis not both branched and with small flower clusters

31. Stem hairs short (< 0.25 mm), very dense, uniform, and recurved ..... M. linoides

32. Leaves <= 4 mm wide

33. Bracts 10–15 mm, >= 5 mm wide; PR, sw DMtns (Little San Bernardino Mtns), s DMoj ..... subsp. linoides

33' Bracts 6–11 mm, < 5 mm wide; n&e SnBr ..... subsp. erecta

32' Leaves >= 4 mm wide

34. Stem 15–25 cm; bracts elliptic to lanceolate, acuminate; Teh, n WTR ..... subsp. oblonga

34' Stem 20–60 cm; bracts broadly lanceolate to ovate; s SNF, c&s SNH, SNE, n DMoj

35. Bracts 15–25 mm, 10–14 mm wide; peduncle stout, generally 5–15 cm (from distal-most leaves to flower cluster), 1–1.5 mm diam just proximal to flower cluster; flower cluster 20–30 mm wide; s SNF, s SNH (Kern, Tulare cos.) ..... subsp. anemonoides

35' Bracts 7–15 mm, 6–9 mm wide; peduncle slender, generally 1–7 cm (from distal-most leaves to flower cluster), <= 1 mm diam just proximal to flower cluster; flower clusters 15–26 mm wide; c&s SNH, SNE, n DMoj ..... subsp. sierrae

31' Stem hairs 0 or long and/or short, but not short (< 0.25 mm) and very dense and uniform and recurved

36. Stem hairs relatively long (> 0.3 mm)

37. Leaves thick; distal-stem hairs dense, felt-like ..... M. stebbinsii

37' Leaves thin; distal-stem hairs sparse to dense, but not felt-like

38. Plants n of TR ..... M. villosa

39. Branched hairs abundant and obvious ..... subsp. obispoensis (2)

39' Branched hairs 0 or inconspicuous

40. Leaf ovate to widely triangular-ovate, base generally truncate ..... subsp. franciscana (2)

40' Leaf ± narrowly ovate, base tapered to obtuse ..... subsp. villosa

38' Plants of TR and s ..... M. australis

41. Stem 3–15 cm; leaf 5–10 mm; corolla 9–11 mm; SnGb ..... subsp. cinerea

41' Stem 10–35 cm; leaf 6–30 mm; corolla 10–13 mm; SnGb, SnBr, and/or SnJt

42. Bracts lanceolate, exceeding calyx; leaves entire to weakly serrate; generally 1 flower cluster per main stem; SnGb, SnBr, SnJt ..... subsp. australis

42' Bracts narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, exceeded by or at same level as calyx; leaves  to serrate (entire); flower clusters 1–several per main stem; e SnGb ..... subsp. jokerstii

36' Stem lacking longer hairs (> 0.3 mm)

43. Plants s of TR

44. Leaves >= 4 mm wide; bracts 7–10 mm, 2.5–4 mm wide; flower clusters 10–15 mm wide ..... M. stoneana

44' Leaves <= 4 mm wide; bracts 10–15 mm, 5–9 mm wide; flower clusters 20–30 mm wide ..... M. viminea

43' Plants n of TR

45. Abaxial leaf hairs minute (< 0.05 mm), remarkably uniform in length and orientation, velvety in appearance ..... M. sheltonii

45' Abaxial leaf hairs 0 or long and/or short, but not remarkably uniform in length and orientation and velvety in appearance

46. Stem sparsely hairy (± glabrous) ..... M. odoratissima

47. Flower cluster subtended by unmodified leaves or not, if present 8–10 mm,  or not; corolla lavender to (± red) purple ..... subsp. glauca

47' Flower cluster generally subtended by reflexed, unmodified leaves 10–20 mm; corolla generally white (occasionally lavender- to purple-tinged) ..... subsp. pallida

46' Stem ± glabrous

48. Hairs on calyx spreading-glandular; stem 30–60 cm ..... M. follettii

48' Hairs on calyx not spreading-glandular; stem 10–40 cm

49. Corolla 15–20 mm; calyx 9–12 mm ..... M. palmeri

49' Corolla 12–16 mm; calyx 6–8 mm ..... M. purpurea



Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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