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Vascular Plants of California
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Key to Silene

View taxon page for Silene

(For a list of species in Silene, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Annualbiennialtaproot generally slender

2. Calyx tube clearly 16–30-veined

3. Styles 5; petal limb ±  to 2-lobed; fruit teeth 10; flower pistillate ..... S. latifolia (3)

3' Styles generally 3; petal limb entire to notched; fruit teeth 3; flower 

4. Calyx 18–26 mm; petal appendages 2–5 mm ..... S. conoidea

4' Calyx 8–12 mm; petal appendages 0 ..... S. multinervia

2' Calyx tube clearly 10-veined

5. Pedicelcalyx glabrous ..... S. antirrhina

5' Pedicel, calyx hairy

6. Pedicels 0–5 mm; flowers generally 1 per inflorescence ± 1-sided

7. Calyx densely short-hairy, not glandular; petal limb 5–12 mm, lobed >= 1/2 length; styles ; inflorescence bracts thin, ± translucent ..... S. dichotoma subsp. dichotoma

7' Calyx glandular-hairy especially on veins; petal limb 2–5 mm, entire to notched; styles ; inflorescence bracts thick, opaque ..... S. gallica

6' Some  > 5 mm; some  with 2–3 flowers; inflorescence not 1-sided

8. Petals bright pink; calyx  2–3 mm ..... [S. pseudatocion]

8' Petals white, yellow-white, or ± pink; calyx lobes 3–13 mm

9. Calyx tube veins not clearly net-like, lobes generally 3–6 mm,  to ; flowers staminate ..... S. latifolia (3)

9' Calyx tube veins net-like above middle, lobes 6–13 mm, generally long-tapered; flowers bisexual ..... S. noctiflora

1' Perennial herb, from  or  to branched, woody 

10. Corolla bright red

11. Petal lobes 2–4; plants 4–10(15) cm ..... S. serpentinicola

11' Petal lobes 4–6; plants 20–70 cm ..... S. laciniata

12. Cauline leaves widely  to ; fruit ovoid ..... subsp. californica

12' Cauline leaves  to narrowly lanceolate; fruit ±  to ovoid ..... subsp. laciniata

10' Corolla white, ± red, purple, or yellow-white or -green to green

13. Calyx clearly ± inflated (papery in Silene vulgaris)

14. Calyx 12–20 mm, short-hairy, 10- or ± 20-veined, lobes 3–6 mm; fruit ovoid ..... S. latifolia (3)

14' Calyx 7–10 mm, generally glabrous, faintly 10–15-veined, lobes 1–3 mm; fruit ± spheric ..... S. vulgaris

13' Calyx not clearly inflated or papery in fruit

15. Petal claw  to limb; appendages 0

16. Calyx lobes 4–5 mm, slightly < tube; petal 4-lobed, claw ± , short-woolly below middle; s SNH ..... S. aperta

16' Calyx lobes 1–2 mm, << tube; petals entire to slightly notched, claw gradually tapered to limb, glabrous to sparsely short-hairy below middle; KR, s CaRH, c&n SNH ..... S. invisa

15' Petal claw and limb junction generally abrupt, often narrowed; appendages 2–6, 0.5–4 mm

17. Petal limb 2-lobed, sometimes short-toothed near base

18. Basal, lower cauline leaves densely tufted, fleshy, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, generally < 40 mm, < 5 mm wide; flowering stems generally < 30 cm

19. Seeds 2–3 mm; calyx 8–10 mm; petal limb 3–5 mm;  leaves 1–5 mm wide ..... S. grayi (2)

19' Seeds 1–2 mm; calyx 9–15 mm; petal limb 2.5–3.5 mm; basal leaves 1.5–3.5 mm wide

20. Walls between calyx hair cells clear; plant 10–15(20) cm; calyx lobes 2–3 mm; SNH, SNE ..... S. sargentii

20' Walls between calyx hair cells purple; plant 3–10 cm; calyx lobes 1–2 mm; CaRH ..... S. suksdorfii

18' Basal leaves not densely tufted, not fleshy, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, some > 30 mm, > 5 mm wide; some flowering stems > 30 cm

21. Petals < 10 mm, calyx 5–7 mm; petal appendages < 0.5 mm ..... S. menziesii (2)

21' Petals > 10 mm, calyx 7–20 mm; petal appendages > 1 mm

22. Flowers nodding; stamens, styles much exserted ..... S. bridgesii

22' Flowers  to generally ; stamens, styles ± not exserted

23. Pedicel, calyx , not glandular, rarely glabrous

24. Calyx base  to rounded in fruit; basal leaves, lower  glabrous to sparsely puberulent ..... S. douglasii var. douglasii

24' Calyx base narrowed in fruit; basal leaves, lower internodes moderately to densely puberulent, ± finely scabrous or not ..... S. verecunda (2)

23' Pedicel, calyx glandular-puberulent to -hairy

25. Basal leaves mostly > 10 mm wide, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or 

26. Cauline leaves << basal leaves; cauline  pairs < 3; fruit stalk 1–2 mm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; calyx  veins wider than tube veins; > 1200 m ..... S. nuda

26' Cauline leaves gradually reduced upward; cauline leaf pairs > 4; fruit stalk 3–6 mm, puberulent to woolly; calyx lobe veins ± as wide as tube veins; < 300 m ..... S. scouleri subsp. scouleri

25' Basal, lower cauline leaves 0 or withering (if present, most < 10 mm wide, linear to narrowly oblanceolate)

27. Middle cauline leaves (3)5–10 mm wide; calyx lobe margins membranous ..... S. marmorensis

27' Middle cauline leaves < 6 mm wide; calyx lobe margin membranous or generally translucent

28. Branches ±  to ; basal leaves (5)8–60 mm, hairs sticky-glandular throughout; flowering calyx ± inflated, generally reddish, lobes generally strongly keeledalpine, SnBr (San Gorgonio Mtn) ..... S. krantzii

28' Branches ascending to erect; basal leaves to 100 mm, hairs non-glandular, at least in part; flowering calyx  to ± inflated, greenish to reddish, lobes generally not keeled; below treeline, widespread ..... S. verecunda (2)

17' Petal limb generally 4–8-lobed

29. Calyx 15–40 mm; corolla 20–30 mm

30. Petals pink to rose-red, limbs 14–20 mm; s CaRH ..... S. occidentalis (2)

30' Petals yellow-white, limbs 7–10 mm; SnGb, SnBr, e PR ..... S. parishii

29' Calyx 5–20(25) mm; corolla generally < 20 mm (< 50 mm in Silene occidentalis)

31. Calyx tube generally <= 10 mm

32. Calyx tube cylindric, length > width; stamens, styles > petal claws; petal claw short-woolly ..... S. lemmonii

32' Calyx tube bell-shaped or elliptic, length ± = width; stamens, styles = to ± > petal claws; petal claw glabrous or  at base

33. Petals 5–11 mm, limb 2–4-lobed; fruit stalk glabrous; flowers generally ascending to erect; calyx lobes generally < 2 mm

34. Leaves linear to oblanceolate; internodes 2–3 × > leaves; calyx clearly veined; petal lobes 4, outer generally > inner ..... S. grayi (2)

34' Leaves lanceolate to elliptic; internodes < leaves; calyx faintly veined; petal lobes generally 2 ..... S. menziesii (2)

33' Petals 12–20 mm, limb 4–6(8)-lobed; fruit stalk puberulent; flowers nodding to ± spreading; calyx lobes 2–5 mm ..... S. greenei

35. Leaves 2–10 mm wide, linear to lanceolate; petals ± pink ..... subsp. angustifolia

35' Leaves 10–30 mm wide, lanceolate to ± round; petals white to ± green ..... subsp. greenei

31' Calyx tube generally > 10 mm

36. Flowers located well above cauline leaves; calyx short-glandular-hairy; petal limb 1/3–1/2 × claw, lobes < 8 mm

37. Fruit stalk 4–7 mm; petal limb 7–17 mm; calyx > 15 mm ..... S. occidentalis (2)

37' Fruit stalk 2–5 mm; petal limb 3–7 mm; calyx generally < 15(–18) mm

38. Petal appendages 2, deeply cut or ; petal claw, stamen base ciliate ..... S. bernardina

38' Petal appendages 4–6, entire; petal claw, stamen base glabrous ..... S. oregana

36' Upper cauline leaves generally overlapping or exceeding pedicels; calyx canescent to soft-white-hairy; petal limb ± = claw, lobes > 10 mm

39. Petal limb white; petal appendages 0 or inconspicuous, weakly developed, variable short teeth; petal limb lobed to base, inner lobes linear, generally > 10× longer than wide; petal base generally densely ciliate, filaments  sepals generally obscured by hairs on petal margins; calyx hairs eglandular – KR (Shasta Co., Harrison Gulch; Trinity Co., mainly s of Hwy 299, n of Hwy 36), NCoRO (Humboldt Co., near Willow Creek) ..... S. nelsonii

39' Petal limb salmon-orange or pink (white); petal appendages conspicuous, consistent in size, shape; petal limb not lobed to base at center, inner lobes oblong to linear, < 10× longer than wide; petal base ± glabrous, filaments opposite sepals clearly visible in elliptical gaps between petal bases at 10× magnification; calyx hairs glandular or not

40. Petal limb salmon-orange, fading to pale red; flower center bright to pale green; petal appendages < 1 mm, tips sharp or blunt; calyx hairs not glandular – KR (Trinity Co., n of Weaverville, <= 8 km from Trinity Lake) ..... S. salmonacea

40' Petal limb pale to bright pink (white); flower center pink or white; petal appendages linear, > 1 mm, tips rounded to acute; calyx hairs glandular or not

41. Petal limb ± 45°ree; to claw in early male phase, spreading or sometimes recurving as styles elongate, generally > 15 mm, inner lobes narrow-oblong to linear, generally > 5× longer than wide, tips rounded to acute, outer lobes generally > 7 mm; stamens?± evenly positioned around broader, less distinct throat; NCoRO (Mendocino, s Humboldt, Trinity cos.; mainly s of Hwy 36) ..... S. bolanderi

41' Petal limb ± perpendicular to claw as stamens dehisce, generally < 15 mm, inner lobes generally oblong, generally < 4× longer than wide, tips rounded or blunt, outer lobes generally < 8 mm; stamens generally clustered on 1 side of narrow, well-defined throat, as best seen after all 10 anthers have dehisced but before styles elongate; KR (Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino (Eden Valley), Siskiyou, Trinity cos.) ..... S. hookeri

 

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/ [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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