Jepson eFlora: Key page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Primula

View taxon page for Primula

(For a list of species in Primula, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Corolla   or , rounded; anthers free 1.5–3.5 cm; heterostylous ..... P. suffrutescens

1' Corolla lobes , generally ; anthers ± adherent into a cone; leaf (2)12–30 cm; homostylous

2. Stigma enlarged (>> style in width); anther connective wrinkled, dark maroon to black; filaments < 1.5 mm, free or joined by thin membrane but not fused into tube

3. Corolla tube generally covering anther bases; flower parts in 5s; anther tips acute; plant densely glandular-hairy ..... P. fragrans

3' Corolla tube not covering anther bases; flower parts in 4s or 5s; anthers tips  to ; plant glabrous to glandular-hairy

4. Leaf 9–50 cm, linear-oblanceolate to oblanceolate; stem glandular-hairy; inflorescence glandular-hairy; flower parts in 4s or 5s; fruit  or with valves, sometimes both on 1 plant ..... P. jeffreyi

4' Leaf 2–20 cm,  to linear-oblanceolate; stem glabrous; inflorescence glabrous to ± glandular-hairy; flower parts in 4s; fruit with valves ..... P. tetrandra

2' Stigma ± not enlarged (± = style in width); anther connectives smooth or wrinkled, yellow or dark; filaments 1–4 mm, fused into tube, or < 1.5 mm, free

5. Anther connectives smooth (to longitudinally wrinkled when dry); fruit circumscissile or with valves

6. Corolla  generally 9–14 mm, magenta to lavender; roots white, without ; fruit with valves ..... P. pauciflora

6' Corolla lobe generally 5–9 mm, magenta to white; roots ± red, with many bulblets; fruit circumscissile ..... P. subalpina (2)

5' Anther connectives transversely wrinkled; fruit circumscissile

7. Leaf  generally  to , length generally > 2.5 × width; filament tube > 2 mm; connective dark, smooth or obscurely wrinkled (if leaf narrowed abruptly to petiole, then filament tube < 1.5 mm, connective dark, generally smooth)

8. Anther 5–9 mm, filament 0.5–1.5 mm, free or fused into tube; corolla lobe generally 7–20 mm ..... P. conjugens

8' Anther 3–4 mm, filament 2–3.5 mm, fused into tube; corolla lobe generally 5–9 mm ..... P. subalpina (2)

7' Leaf blade generally narrowed abruptly to petiole, length generally < 2.5 × width; filament tube 1–4 mm; connective dark, generally wrinkled

9. Leaf blade length generally < 2 × width; filament tube generally < 3 mm wide; root bulblets present at flower ..... P. hendersonii

9' Leaf blade length generally > 2 × width; filament tube generally 3–4 mm wide; root bulblets 0 ..... P. clevelandii

10. Anther connectives yellow; filament tube without yellow or white spot below each anther, sometimes all yellow ..... var. clevelandii

10' Anther connectives maroon to black; filament tube with or without yellow or white spot below each anther

11. Filament tube without yellow or white spot below each anther ..... var. insularis

11' Filament tube with yellow or white spot below each anther

12. Anther dark red, black, or generally yellow, tip acute to obtuse ..... var. gracilis

12' Anther generally dark purple, tip obtuse to notched ..... var. patula


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) . Jepson eFlora, [accessed on ]

Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on .

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