Jepson eFlora: Key page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Key to Pinus

View taxon page for Pinus

(For a list of species in Pinus, use the above link.)

Jepson Manual glossary definitions can be seen by moving your cursor over words underlined with dots.

1. Lf-bundle  deciduous or mostly so; seed cone  tip generally without prickle

2. Leaves generally < 5 per bundle

3. Leaves (3)4(5) per bundle ..... P. quadrifolia

3' Leaves generally 1–2 per bundle

4. Leaves generally 2 per bundle ..... P. edulis

4' Leaves generally 1 per bundle ..... P. monophylla

2' Leaves 5 per bundle

5. Seed cone generally closed, generally torn apart by animals, generally not on ground intact; seed wings persistent on scale ..... P. albicaulis

5' Seed cone opening and releasing seeds, not torn apart by animals, generally on ground intact (except for released seeds); seed wings persistent on scale or not

6. Seed cone scale thinnest at tip, without prickle

7. Seed cone stalk < 2 cm; seed wings narrow, generally persistent on scale ..... P. flexilis

7' Seed cone stalk > 2 cm; seed wings wide, deciduous from scale

8. Seed cone 20–60 cm; mature bark dark purple-brown ..... P. lambertiana

8' Seed cone 9–25 cm; mature bark dark gray to red-brown ..... P. monticola

6' Seed cone scale thickest at tip, with prickle

9. Scale knob tip prickle 1–6 mm; trunks often many ..... P. longaeva

9' Scale knob tip prickle <= 1 mm; trunks generally 1 ..... P. balfouriana

10. Leaf ± yellow-green; bark red-brown, in ± square plates; s SNH ..... subsp. austrina

10' Leaf ± blue-green; bark gray-brown, in ± narrow ridges; KR, NCoRH ..... subsp. balfouriana

1' Lf-bundle sheath persistent; seed cone scale tip with prickle, at least when immature (sometimes 0 at maturity)

11. Leaves 2 per bundle

12. Seed cone 5–9.7 cm;  generally 5–15 cm ..... P. muricata

12' Seed cone 2–6 cm; leaf 2.5–8.6 cm ..... P. contorta

13. Seed cone generally not opening,  ..... subsp. bolanderi

13' Seed cone opening, asymmetric or ± symmetric

14. Seed cone on stem many years after opening ..... subsp. contorta

14' Seed cone deciduous soon after opening ..... subsp. murrayana

11' Leaves 3 or 5 per bundle (2–5 in Pinus ponderosa)

15. Leaves 5 per bundle, often 3 in young trees ..... P. torreyana

16. Crown ± closed, generally wider than long, most open seed cones with combined length and width > 27 cm, width > length; light colored scale tips generally prominent; n ChI (Santa Rosa Island) ..... subsp. insularis

16' Crown ± open, generally longer than wide, most open seed cones with combined length and width < 27 cm, width <= length; light colored scale tips generally not prominent; s SCo (mostly Torrey Pines State Reserve) ..... subsp. torreyana

15' Leaves 3 per bundle (rarely 2 in Pinus ponderosa)

17. Proximal seed cone scale tips , elongated 1.5–7 cm

18. Seed cone ± yellow; seed < ; leaf rigid, not drooping ..... P. coulteri

18' Seed cone ± brown; seed > wing; leaf flexible, generally drooping ..... P. sabiniana

17' Proximal seed cone scale tips rarely recurved, then elongated < 3 cm

19. Seed cones on stems many years

20. Seed cone scale tips, except distal, with knob angled, > 2 cm ..... P. attenuata

20' Seed cone scale tips, except distal, with knob rounded, < 2 cm ..... P. radiata

19' Seed cones deciduous except stalks, proximal scales persistent

21. Bark crevices with definite odor of vanilla/banana, especially on warm days; scales of open seed cone ± crowded, generally not darker abaxially than adaxially; leaf gray-blue-green, glaucous; bark outer scales with ± pink inner surfaces; vegetative  not resinous; seed cone generally 13–25 cm, scales each with a generally incurved prickle, bracts with white fringing hairs ..... P. jeffreyi

21' Bark crevices generally lacking odor of vanilla/banana; scales of open seed cone well separated to very crowded, generally darker abaxially than adaxially; leaf gray-green, shiny deep green, or light green; bark outer scales with ± yellow inner surfaces; vegetative buds resinous; seed cone 7–15(18) cm, scales each with a straight or outcurved prickle, bracts with light brown fringing hairs ..... P. ponderosa

22. Mature bark light to medium yellow-brown; maturing closed cones green; open mature cones generally 8–18 cm, scales abaxially black ..... var. pacifica

22' Mature bark generally medium to dark red- or yellow-brown; maturing closed cones ± green to dark purple; open mature cones 6–12(15) cm, scales abaxially brown with black striations or black

23. Immature seed cones green-brown to dark purple; mature open cones  to ± conic, 7–12(15) cm, scales abaxially generally black, occasionally brown with black striations; CaRH, n SNH, MP ..... var. ponderosa

23' Immature seed cones dark red-purple; mature open cones ovate or generally conic, generally 6–11 cm, scales abaxially generally brown with black striations, occasionally black; CaRH, n SNH, Wrn ..... var. washoensis


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