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Vascular Plants of California
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Holocarpha macradenia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: HolocarphaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual 1--12 dm, aromatic. Stem: +- erect. Leaf: proximal opposite or in rosette, generally withered before flower, most alternate, sessile, linear to oblanceolate, serrate, or minutely so, or entire, coarse-hairy to strigose, silky-, or +- shaggy-hairy, distal sometimes also stalked-glandular and/or gland-dotted, tips of distal leaves generally each with a pit-gland. Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1 or in +- flat-topped, panicle-, raceme-, or spike-like clusters or in tight groups; peduncle bracts each with terminal pit-gland; involucre +- obconic or bell-shaped to +- spheric, 4--8+ mm diam; phyllaries 3--16 in 1 series, elliptic, oblanceolate, or obovate, each generally 1/2 enveloping a subtended ray ovary, falling with fruit, abaxially with pit-gland-tipped cylindrical outgrowths and glabrous or +- shaggy, bristly, and/or sessile- or stalked-glandular; receptacle flat to convex, glabrous; paleae subtending all or most disk flowers. Ray Flower: 3--16; corolla yellow, ray 4--6.5 mm, lobes 1/8--1/2 length of ray, +- parallel. Disk Flower: 9--90, some bisexual, most staminate; corolla 2.5--5 mm, yellow, tube <= throat, lobes deltate; anthers yellow to +- brown or +- red to dark purple, tips ovate to ovate-deltate; style glabrous proximal to branches, tips awl-shaped to bristle-like, densely hairy.; anther bases sagittate. Fruit: ray fruit +- 2.5--4 mm, nearly round in ×-section (except +- flattened adaxially) or +- 3- angled (abaxially generally +- widely 2-faced, adaxially +- flattened to slightly bulging), glabrous, tip beaked, beak adaxial, ascending, pappus 0; disk fruit +- club-shaped, glabrous, tip beakless, pappus 0.
Species In Genus: 4 species: California. Etymology: (Greek: whole chaff, for bracts throughout receptacle) Note: +- identical forms often intersterile in Holocarpha heermannii and Holocarpha virgata. Self-sterile.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Reference: Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:287--289
Unabridged Reference: Palmer 1982 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of California, Davis
Holocarpha macradenia (DC.) Greene
Habit: Plant 1--5 dm. Stem: notably stalked-glandular. Inflorescence: heads 1 or in tight groups or spike-like clusters of tight groups; involucres +- spheric; phyllaries each with +- 25 pit-gland-tipped outgrowths and minutely sessile- or stalked-glandular. Ray Flower: 8--16. Disk Flower: 40--90; anthers +- red to dark purple. Chromosomes: 2n=8.
Ecology: Grassy areas, clay soil; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo (n&c Monterey Bay, extirpated elsewhere), sw SnFrB (introduced e SnFrB). Flowering Time: Jun--Nov
Jepson eFlora Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Reference: Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:287--289
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Holocarpha heermannii
Next taxon: Holocarpha obconica

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Botanical illustration including Holocarpha macradenia

botanical illustration including Holocarpha macradenia


Citation for this treatment: Bruce G. Baldwin 2012, Holocarpha macradenia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=3558, accessed on June 13, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 13, 2021.

Holocarpha macradenia
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© 2020 Vernon Smith
Holocarpha macradenia
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© 2001 John Game
Holocarpha macradenia
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© 2020 Vernon Smith
Holocarpha macradenia
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© 2020 Vernon Smith
Holocarpha macradenia
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© 2011 Dylan Neubauer
Holocarpha macradenia
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© 2020 Vernon Smith

More photos of Holocarpha macradenia in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Holocarpha macradenia:
CCo (n&c Monterey Bay, extirpated elsewhere), sw SnFrB (introduced e SnFrB).
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).