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Lysimachia arvensis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: MyrsinaceaeView Description 
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [shrub, tree], glabrous or occasionally hairy, sometimes glandular, resin canals sometimes obvious as dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits. Leaf: cauline, simple, alternate, opposite, subopposite, or whorled; stipules 0; petioled or not. Inflorescence: axillary, raceme, [panicle, umbel] or flowers 1 [or in whorls]. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in 4s to 9s; calyx deeply lobed, generally green (petal-like); corolla (0) or lobes generally spreading; stamens epipetalous (or not if corolla 0), opposite corolla lobes, filaments united (or free) just distal to point of attachment to corolla, staminodes 0 [present]; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma generally head-like. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 5--6-valved [drupe, drupe-like]. Seed: [1]--many.
Genera In Family: +- 35 genera, 800 species: especially tropics, subtropics; some ornamental. Note: Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) removed to Myrsinaceae. Based on phylogenetic research, all California members of Myrsinaceae have been transferred to Lysimachia (Manns & Anderberg 2009 Willdenowia 39:49--54 and Cholewa 2014 Phytoneuron 2014-28: 1--2), as reflected in this revised treatment.
Unabridged Note: Recent molecular work has redefined Ericales. Non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. are now widely treated in Myrsinoideae or Myrsinaceae, which are further characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and -- for woody members -- wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a recent segregate of tropical trees) constitute a closely related, monophyletic group. Lysimachia has been recognized (even by Linnaeus) as a rather complex group with close affinities to other genera (Glaux, for instance, has been shown to be an apetalous sp. of Lysimachia). Phylogenetic research (by Arne A. Anderberg and colleagues in Europe) on this and related genera indicated that they were actually specialized taxa that had evolved within Lysimachia, so that all California members of Myrsinaceae now have been transferred to Lysimachia (Manns & Anderberg 2009 Willdenowia 39:49--54 and Cholewa 2014 Phytoneuron 2014-28: 1--2), as reflected in this revised treatment that now includes Lysimachia arvensis, Lysimachia europaea, Lysimachia latifolia, Lysimachia maritima, Lysimachia minima, and Lysimachia monelli, in addition to the two species previously treated in the genus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Anita F. Cholewa
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: LysimachiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Glabrous, glandular, or hairy. Leaf: linear, lanceolate or elliptic to widely ovate, generally entire. Flower: parts in 4s to 9s, generally in 5s to 7s; corolla present or not; filaments free or fused at base. Fruit: 5--6-valved or circumscissile, +- spheric or +- ovoid.
Species In Genus: 170 species: generally northern temperate. Etymology: (Greek: loose dagger)
eFlora Treatment Author: Anita F. Cholewa
Unabridged Reference: [Hao et al. 2004 Molec Phylogen Evol 31:323--339]
Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.
Habit: Annual; resin canals +- obvious. Stem: ascending to erect, 5--40 cm, freely branched. Leaf: opposite or whorled; blade 5--20 mm, ovate to elliptic, distal lanceolate to ovate; petiole 0. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils; pedicels generally > subtending leaves, recurved in fruit. Flower: calyx 3--5 mm, <= corolla, divided nearly to base, lobes 5; corolla 4--7 mm, salmon, red, blue, or blue-white, lobes 5; stamens (4)5. Fruit: circumscissile, +- spheric. Chromosomes: 2n=40.
Ecology: Common. Disturbed places, ocean beaches; Elevation: generally < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, D; Distribution Outside California: to eastern North America; native to Europe. Toxicity: TOXIC to livestock, humans. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Anagallis arvensis L.; Anagallis arvensis subsp. arvensis; Anagallis arvensis var. caerulea (L.) Gouan; Anagallis caerulea L.; Anagallis arvensis subsp. foemina (Mill.) Schinz & Thell., misappl.; Anagallis caerulea Lam., misappl.; Anagallis caerulea Schreb., misappl.; Anagallis foemina Mill., misappl.
Jepson eFlora Author: Anita F. Cholewa
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Anita F. Cholewa 2014, Lysimachia arvensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 2,, accessed on May 14, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 14, 2021.

Lysimachia arvensis
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© 2018 Neal Kramer
Lysimachia arvensis
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Lysimachia arvensis
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Lysimachia arvensis
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© 2017 Vernon Smith
Lysimachia arvensis
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© 2011 Vernon Smith
Lysimachia arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling

More photos of Lysimachia arvensis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Lysimachia arvensis:
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).