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Vascular Plants of California
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Primula jeffreyi


Higher Taxonomy
Family: PrimulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or subshrub, glabrous to glandular-hairy. Leaf: simple, +- basal, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: scapose umbel, subtended by involucre. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in 4s or 5s (6s); calyx deeply lobed, often persistent; corolla lobes erect or spreading to reflexed; stamens epipetalous, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma head- or dot-like. Fruit: capsule, 2--7-valved or circumscissile. Seed: small, few to many.
Genera In Family: +- 8 genera, 600 species: northern hemisphere; several ornamental (Primula). Note: Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) moved to Myrsinaceae, and Samolus to Theophrastaceae; based on the same evidence, Primulaceae has been treated alternatively to include all of Myrsinaceae and Theophrastaceae. Taxa of Dodecatheon in TJM2 treated here in Primula.
Unabridged Note: Recent molecular work has led to new understanding of relationships in Ericales. As treated here, non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. have been removed from that family and inserted in Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae, then, is characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and -- for woody members -- wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a recent segregate of tropical trees), now constitute a closely related, monophyletic clade. A more recently proposed, alternative taxonomy treats all members of that large clade within an expanded Primulaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Anita F. Cholewa, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PrimulaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb or subshrub, from rhizome, stolon, or caudex, glabrous or glandular-hairy. Leaf: blade entire or toothed. Flower: erect to spreading or nodding; generally homostylous; sepals erect or reflexed in flower, erect in fruit, persistent; corolla salverform or funnel-shaped with well-developed tube, including anthers, and erect to spreading, notched lobes, or rotate with very short tube, prominently exerted anthers, and reflexed, entire lobes, proximally white and/or yellow and/or dark purple, distally white, lavender, pink, or purple; filaments generally very short, including anthers free, oblong, exerted anthers on generally wide, often fused filaments, erect, generally +- lanceolate, generally +- adherent into a cone around style; ovary superior, style slender, +- exserted beyond anthers, stigma head- or dot-like. Fruit: +- 5-valved or circumscissile, ovoid or oblong-ovoid to cylindric.
Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of first, from early flower) Note: Dodecatheon, a monophyletic taxon closest to Primula subg. Auriculastrum, recently treated in that subg. as sect. Dodecatheon (Mast & Reveal 2007); taxa treated in Dodecatheon in TJM2 treated in Primula here. Polyploid group; species often intergrade; "anther connective" refers to tissue between pollen sacs, especially near base; dehiscence must be determined on fruit that has aged and dried naturally, because e.g., green fruit of circumscissile taxa (e.g., Primula clevelandii) sometimes split longitudinally as a result of pressing and thereby may appear valved.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti & Sylvia Kelso
Reference: Mast & Reveal 2007 Brittonia 59:79--82
Unabridged Reference: Thompson 1953 Contr Dudley Herb 4:73--154; Mast et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91: 926--942
Primula jeffreyi (Van Houtte) A.R. Mast & Reveal
Habit: Plant glabrous except stem, inflorescence glandular-hairy. Stem: 10--60 cm. Leaf: 9--50 cm; blade linear-oblanceolate to oblanceolate, generally tapered to petiole, entire to crenate. Inflorescence: 3--18-flowered. Flower: parts in 4s or 5s; corolla lobes 10--25 mm, magenta to lavender or white; filaments free or partly fused, generally < 1.5 mm, anthers 6.5--11 mm, connective wrinkled, generally dark purple; stigma enlarged. Fruit: circumscissile or with valves, sometimes both on 1 pl. Chromosomes: 2n=42,43,44, 66,86.
Ecology: Moist to dry meadows, streambanks; Elevation: 600--3000 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW (exc NCo), CaR, SN, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Montana. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Highly variable, especially in southern SN. Intergrades with Primula fragrans, Primula tetrandra.
Synonyms: Dodecatheon jeffreyi Van Houtte; Dodecatheon jeffreyi subsp. jeffreyi; Dodecatheon jeffreyi subsp. pygmaeum (H.M. Hall) H.J. Thomps.; Dodecatheon jeffreyi f. pygmaeum H.M. Hall
Unabridged Note: From Reveal 2009 FNANM 8:276: "This species is known universally as Dodecatheon jeffreyi, although it was named a year earlier as D. jeffreyanum K. Koch. To avoid the introduction of a name that has never been used for this widespread and sometimes cultivated plant, D. jeffreyanum has been proposed for rejection (J.F. Veldkamp et al. 2008) [J.F. Veldkamp, J.L. Reveal, and K.N. Gandhi 2008 Taxon 57:1004--1006]".
Jepson eFlora Author: Thomas J. Rosatti & Sylvia Kelso
Reference: Mast & Reveal 2007 Brittonia 59:79--82
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti & Sylvia Kelso 2013, Primula jeffreyi, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 1,, accessed on July 14, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 14, 2024.

Primula jeffreyi
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©2013 California Academy of Sciences
Primula jeffreyi
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©2012 Gary A. Monroe
Primula jeffreyi
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©2009 California Academy of Sciences
Primula jeffreyi
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©2022 Barry Rice
Primula jeffreyi
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©2017 Barry Rice

More photos of Primula jeffreyi
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Geographic subdivisions for Primula jeffreyi:
NW (exc NCo), CaR, SN, MP
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).