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Vascular Plants of California
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Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches +- whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud +- conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5--35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2--5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed Cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3--7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 94 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: pine) Note: Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10--30 cm; seed cone 8--15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, northern ChI.
Unabridged Note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three varieties: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Unabridged Reference: Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39--53
Species: Pinus ponderosaView Description 

Stem: trunk generally < 68 m, generally < 2.2 m wide; branched in lower 1/2 when mature or not; mature bark furrows shallow, well spaced, forming plates, outer scales with +- yellow inner surfaces; mature crown short, conic or flat-topped; buds resinous, scales red-brown, dark-hairy. Leaf: (2)3[5] per bundle, 12--26 cm, < 2 mm thick, +- or not glaucous, deep yellow-green; sheath persistent. Seed Cone: +- spreading or recurved, 7--15(18) cm, ovate to +- conic, when immature green-brown to dark purple; stalk < 2 cm, persistent with proximal scales; scales generally darker abaxially than adaxially, in open cone well separated to very crowded; knob prickles < 3 mm, straight or outcurved; bracts with light brown fringing hairs. Seed: < wing.

Unabridged Note: Because the neotype of Pinus ponderosa actually is a Washoe pine cone, a different name for Pacific Ponderosa pine would have been needed had the name Pinus ponderosa not been conserved with a different type by recent, special botanical legislation.
Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson var. washoensis (H. Mason & Stockw.) J.R. Haller & Vivrette
Stem: trunk < 35 m, < 1.5 m wide; mature bark generally medium to dark red- or yellow-brown, generally shallow-furrowed; mature crown short, conic or flat-topped. Leaf: 3 per bundle, 12--17 cm, 1.8--2.4 mm wide, very thick, light green, +- glaucous; sheath persistent. Seed Cone: spreading, generally 5--11 cm, ovate or generally conic, when immature dark red-purple, maturing closed cones +- green to dark purple; stalk < 2 cm; scales adaxially generally brown, abaxially generally brown with black striations, occasionally black, in open cone very crowded; knob prickles varied, generally straight, parallel to cone edge.
Ecology: Upper mixed-conifer to lower subalpine; Elevation: (1400)2000--3000 m (generally hybridizes with Pinus ponderosa at 1700--2000 m; growing near but not hybridizing with Pinus jeffreyi at 1800--2100 m). Bioregional Distribution: CaRH, n SNH, Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, western Nevada.
Synonyms: Pinus washoensis H. Mason & Stockw.
Jepson eFlora Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette 2012, Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 10, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 10, 2022.

Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis:
CaRH, n SNH, Wrn
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).