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Vascular Plants of California
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Kopsiopsis strobilacea

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: KopsiopsisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GROUND-CONE
Habit: Perennial herb 7--30 cm, not green (holoparasite); roots 0. Stem: erect, simple, 1--many from spheric, tuber-like base attached to host root; tuber surface covered with polygonal plates 2--3 mm diam. Leaf: true leaves 0. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts densely overlapping; pedicels generally < 2 mm; bractlets on pedicel 0--2, linear. Flower: calyx cup-shaped, lobes tapered; corolla with ring of hairs in distal tube at base of stamens, upper lip entire or indented, margin incurved, lower lip 3-lobed; distal end of filament and anther hairy. Fruit: placenta 1 per valve.
Etymology: (Jan Kops, Dutch botanist, 1765--1849)
eFlora Treatment Author: Alison E.L. Colwell
Reference: Gilkey 1945 Oregon State Monogr Stud Bot 9
Kopsiopsis strobilacea (A. Gray) Beck
Habit: Plant (6)10--30 cm. Inflorescence: 4--15 cm, generally red-brown to dark +- purple (pale); largest bracts 15--20 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 0(2--4), 3--7 mm, abruptly tapered; corolla generally purple (lobe margins pale), lips 5--6 mm, +- equal, lower lip generally spreading, margins glabrous. Seed: +- 2 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=82.
Ecology: Open woodland, chaparral, generally on Arctostaphylos; Elevation: < 3000 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, n SN, SnFrB, TR, PR; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon, Baja California. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Widely scattered, most common in NW, TR. A few populations intermediate to Kopsiopsis hookeri in corolla pubescence and bract shape occur in Siskiyou, Sonoma, Shasta cos.
Synonyms: Boschniakia strobilacea A. Gray
Jepson eFlora Author: Alison E.L. Colwell
Reference: Gilkey 1945 Oregon State Monogr Stud Bot 9
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Kopsiopsis hookeri
Next taxon: Orthocarpus

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Botanical illustration including Kopsiopsis strobilacea

botanical illustration including Kopsiopsis strobilacea

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Citation for this treatment: Alison E.L. Colwell 2012, Kopsiopsis strobilacea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 12, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on June 12, 2024.

Kopsiopsis strobilacea
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©2006 Steve Matson
Kopsiopsis strobilacea
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©2016 Keir Morse
Kopsiopsis strobilacea
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©2008 Aaron Schusteff
Kopsiopsis strobilacea
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©2008 Aaron Schusteff
Kopsiopsis strobilacea
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©2016 Keir Morse

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Geographic subdivisions for Kopsiopsis strobilacea:
NW, CaR, n SN, SnFrB, TR, PR
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).