Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Habit: Perennial herb, from taproot, hairs 0 or sparse. Stem: reclining or erect, branched, 2--150 cm, 4-angled. Leaf: cauline, also basal or not, generally lanceolate to ovate, thin to leathery, toothed, petiole 0 or short. Inflorescence: flowers generally 2--4+ per node. Flower: not inverted; corolla widely funnel-shaped, pale to deep blue, lobes lance-linear; ovary inferior, hemispheric, ribbed. Fruit: open by 2--3 lateral pores. Seed: 2 mm, oblong.
Species In Genus: +- 27 species: northern hemisphere; many cultivated, some medicinal. Etymology: (Greek: possibly not together, from divided corolla)
Jepson eFlora Author: Nancy R. Morin
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1945 Bartonia 23:36
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Asyneuma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 25, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 25, 2021.