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Vascular Plants of California
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Triglochin scilloides

Higher Taxonomy
Family: JuncaginaceaeView Description 
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or dense-tufted, terrestrial or aquatic. Leaf: generally +- basal, alternate, +- flat to narrow-cylindric; sheath open, generally liguled. Inflorescence: spike or generally +- scapose raceme; bracts 0. Flower: generally bisexual; perianth parts generally 6 in 2 whorls (0, 1) [3, 4], free, scale-like, +- green or tinged +- red-purple; stamens 0, 1, 3, or 6, filaments short, +- fused to perianth; pistil 1, carpels 1, 6 [3, 4], +- fused, separating in fruit [or not], each with 1 chamber and 1 ovule or 3 carpels fertile, 3 sterile, placentas basal, stigmas generally +- sessile. Fruit: achene or generally mericarps.
Genera In Family: 3 genera, 30 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. Note: Lilaea included in Triglochin.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TriglochinView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ARROW-GRASS
Habit: Plant +- glabrous. Leaf: basal, +- tufted; sheath membranous; ligule tip entire to 2-lobed [0]. Flower: perianth parts generally adaxially concave; anthers +- sessile; stigma papillate or +- plumose. Fruit: achene or generally 3, 6 mericarps. Seed: 1, linear, +- flat or angled.
Etymology: (Greek: 3 points, from fruits of some) Toxicity: TOXIC when fresh, from cyanogenic compounds.
Triglochin scilloides (Poir.) Mering & Kadereit
Habit: Annual, tufted, in youth submersed, in age +- emergent; roots fibrous. Leaf: 5--20(45) cm, 1--5 mm wide, +- elliptic to +- round in ×-section; ligule +- 1 mm, tip +- obtuse or +- notched. Inflorescence: +- scapose, generally emergent, +- dense spike of bisexual and sometimes staminate flowers, (2)6--20 cm, + 2 submersed, sessile pistillate flowers enclosed in leaf sheath at base of scape. Staminate Flower: perianth part 1, 2--3 mm; stamen 1. Pistillate Flower: perianth 0; carpel 1, style 6--20 cm, thread-like, stigma floating, head-like. Bisexual Flower: perianth part 1, 2--3 mm; stamen 1; carpel 1, style generally short. Fruit: achene, 2--10 mm, ribbed, +- flat, +- winged in bisexual flowers, angled in pistillate flowers, tip truncate with off-center beak. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Vernal pools, streams, ponds, lake margins; Elevation: < 1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRI, SN, GV, CW, SCo, PR, GB; Distribution Outside California: to western Canada, Montana, Mexico, Chile; naturalized in Australia, Iberian Peninsula. Flowering Time: Mar--Oct Note: Previously in Lilaea, yet highly nested in Triglochin, a paraphyletic genus made monophyletic by inclusion of this sp. (von Mering & Kadereit 2010).
Synonyms: Lilaea scilloides (Poir.) Hauman
Unabridged Note: Previously in Lilaea, sometimes in Lilaeaceae, but evidence from molecular biology, embryology, cytology, palynology indicates close relationship with Trigochlin, a paraphyletic genus made monophyletic by inclusion of this sp. (von Mering & Kadereit 2010).
Jepson eFlora Author: David J. Keil
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Triglochin palustris
Next taxon: Triglochin striata

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Botanical illustration including Triglochin scilloides

botanical illustration including Triglochin scilloides

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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2012, Triglochin scilloides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 17, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 17, 2024.

Triglochin scilloides
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©2004 Carol W. Witham
Triglochin scilloides
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©2022 Neal Kramer
Triglochin scilloides
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©2000 John Game
Triglochin scilloides
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©2022 Neal Kramer
Triglochin scilloides
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©2022 Neal Kramer

More photos of Triglochin scilloides
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Triglochin scilloides:
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).