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Vascular Plants of California
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Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ChylismiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, occasionally perennial herb, from taproot. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately lobed with large terminal lobe (simple), margin dentate to entire, abaxial face and/or margin with +- conspicuous brown oil cells, long-petioled. Inflorescence: erect or nodding raceme. Flower: generally opening at dawn (occasionally at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed; petals 4, yellow or white (often fading orange-red) or lavender, generally fading red, if yellow generally strongly ultraviolet reflective, often with 1+ red spots near base, occasionally non-reflective near base or throughout; stamens (4)8, longer opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, filaments long-ciliate or glabrous, pollen grains 3-angled at 20×; stigma entire and spheric or rarely conic-peltate, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated or +- = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: straight to curved, not twisted or coiled, valves with obvious midrib, pedicelled. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, lenticular to narrowly ovoid, with +- pronounced membranous margin when immature.
Etymology: (Greek: juice) Note: Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Unabridged Reference: Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161--396
Species: Chylismia cardiophyllaView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb; rosette 0; hairs spreading, glandular or not. Stem: < 100 cm. Leaf: blade < 55 mm, ovate to rounded-cordate, irregularly dentate; petiole < 75 mm. Inflorescence: dense, nodding. Flower: opening at dusk; hypanthium 4.5--14 mm; sepals 3--9 mm; petals 3--12 mm, yellow or cream. Fruit: 20--55 mm, ascending, cylindric, +- straight; pedicel 1--18 mm. Seed: 0.5--0.7 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Note: Generally cross-pollinated. 3 subspecies, 2 in California.
Chylismia cardiophylla (Torr.) Small subsp. cardiophylla
Habit: Occasionally some hairs glandular. Leaf: cordate. Flower: hypanthium 4.5--12 mm; petals 3--12 mm.
Ecology: Sandy washes, slopes, rocky walls, creosote-bush scrub; Elevation: < 600 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s DMoj (San Bernardino Co.), DSon; Distribution Outside California: southern Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophyllabotanical illustration including Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla

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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner 2012, Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 21, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 21, 2024.

Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla
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©2015 Keir Morse
Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla
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©2009 Keir Morse
Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla
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©1998 Christopher L. Christie
Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla
click for image enlargement
©2015 Keir Morse
Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla
click for image enlargement
©2015 Keir Morse

More photos of Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Chylismia cardiophylla subsp. cardiophylla:
c&s DMoj (San Bernardino Co.), DSon
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).