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Vascular Plants of California
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Nemacladus californicus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornament (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NemacladusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally +- brown or +- purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: +- raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla +- radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2--12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
Etymology: (Greek: thread-like branch) Note: In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged Note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1--134
Nemacladus californicus (A. Gray) Morin
Habit: Prostrate, rosettes 1 or linked by naked, creeping stem, 1--10 cm diam. Stem: reclined. Leaf: 5--20 mm, oblanceolate, entire, hairy, narrowed to slender petiole. Inflorescence: head-like, axis compressed; bracts 3--9 mm, oblanceolate or spoon-shaped, spreading; pedicels 2--5 mm, 0.1--0.2 mm diam, spreading, straight, tip not curved. Flower: not inverted; hypanthium +- 1 mm; sepals 2--6 mm, oblanceolate, erect; corolla not conspicuously 2-lipped, divided 1/2 to base, white, tube bell-shaped, lobes spreading, elliptic or oblong, acute, 1.5--2 mm; filaments declined, curled up, 1--3 mm, few hairs at tip, appendage attached at base of filament, paddle-shaped, cells tube-like, blunt, 0.1 mm, anthers 0.5--0.6 mm; ovary 1/2--2/3-inferior. Fruit: 4--5 mm, base acute, tip dome-like; circumscissile. Seed: 0.5--0.7 mm, widely elliptic, pitted.
Ecology: Sandy or gravelly soils; Elevation: 650--1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: se SCoRO, s SCoRI (Caliente Range), ne WTR (n Ventura Co.), DMoj (San Bernardino Co.). Flowering Time: Apr--May
Synonyms: Parishella californica A. Gray
Jepson eFlora Author: Nancy R. Morin
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Nemacladus californicus

botanical illustration including Nemacladus californicus


Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Nemacladus californicus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 30, 2023.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2023, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 30, 2023.

Nemacladus californicus
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© 2021 Ryan O'Dell
Nemacladus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2019 Aaron Schusteff
Nemacladus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2019 Aaron Schusteff
Nemacladus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2019 Aaron Schusteff
Nemacladus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2019 Aaron Schusteff
Nemacladus californicus
click for enlargement
© 2021 Ryan O'Dell

More photos of Nemacladus californicus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Nemacladus californicus:
se SCoRO, s SCoRI (Caliente Range), ne WTR (n Ventura Co.), DMoj (San Bernardino Co.).
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).