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Vascular Plants of California
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Nemacladus orientalis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornament (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NemacladusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally +- brown or +- purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: +- raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla +- radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2--12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
Etymology: (Greek: thread-like branch) Note: In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged Note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1--134
Nemacladus orientalis (McVaugh) Morin
Habit: Erect, 5--25 cm, branched from base. Stem: stiffly ascending. Leaf: 3--16 mm, oblanceolate to elliptic, toothed or pinnately lobed, hairy, tapered to petiole. Inflorescence: axis +- straight; bracts 1--6 mm, spreading, lanceolate to ovate; pedicels 6--16 mm, 0.1 mm diam, stiffly ascending, straight to tip. Flower: not inverted; hypanthium +- 1 mm; sepals 0.8--2.3 mm, linear-elliptic to +- deltate, erect; corolla 2-lipped, divided +- to base, white, lobes oblanceolate, 3 adaxial erect, 1.3--2.5 mm, maroon at tips, ciliate, 2 abaxial 1.3--2.5 mm; filaments 1--2 mm, declined, tip +- curved, glabrous, appendages stout stalks, cells blunt, anthers 0.2--0.4 mm; ovaries 1/3--1/2-inferior. Fruit: +- 2--4 mm, base rounded, tip acute. Seed: +- 0.5 mm, cylindric, with impressed, vertical lines crossed by fine transverse lines.
Ecology: Dry slopes, sandy soils, washes; Elevation: < 2400 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCoRI, SnGb, n SnBr, SNE, D; Distribution Outside California: to Utah, New Mexico, Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Nemacladus glanduliferus Jeps. var. orientalis McVaugh
Jepson eFlora Author: Nancy R. Morin
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Nemacladus orientalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 08, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 08, 2022.

Nemacladus orientalis
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© 2005 James M. Andre
Nemacladus orientalis
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus orientalis
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© 2010 James Morefield
Nemacladus orientalis
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Nemacladus orientalis
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© 2020 Aaron Schusteff
Nemacladus orientalis
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© 2013 Keir Morse

More photos of Nemacladus orientalis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Nemacladus orientalis:
SCoRI, SnGb, n SnBr, SNE, D
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).