Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Arctotis venusta

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ArctotisView Description 

Habit: Annual [perennial herb, subshrub]. Stem: erect [decumbent], branched. Leaf: simple, basal and cauline, alternate; petioled or not; blades entire to pinnately lobed, white-woolly or sparsely cobwebby. Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1, long-peduncled; phyllaries graduated in +- 3--6 series, cobwebby to bristly; receptacle flat, pitted (pit margins often ciliate), epaleate. Ray Flower: corolla white, yellow, orange, pink or purple, often with proximal markings, abaxially generally red-purple or violet. Disk Flower: generally bisexual; anther base minutely sagittate, tip ovate-triangular; style slender proximally, thickened distally to a minutely hairy node, branches minute. Fruit: ovoid to oblong; abaxially with 2--3 wings +- bent inward forming 1--2 cavities or furrows; adaxially +- longitudinally ridged, glabrous to hairy; pappus 0, or of +- overlapping scales in 1--2 series (occasionally minute).
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: southern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: bear's ear, probably for woolly fruit) Note: Arctotis fastuosa Jacq. [Venidium fastuosum (Jacq.) Stapf], a rare escape from cultivation, has bright orange to yellow rays, obconic fruit 1--1.5 mm, glabrous, wrinkled, with 1 abaxial furrow and no basal cluster of hairs, and pappus 0.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alison M. Mahoney & Robert J. McKenzie
Reference: Mahoney 2006 FNANM 19:198--199; Mahoney & McKenzie 2008 Madroño 55:244--257
Arctotis venusta Norl.
Habit: Plant taprooted. Stem: stout, (2)4--7(10) dm, cobwebby to woolly. Leaf: blade 5--20 × 1--4.5 cm, oblong to obovate, entire to wavy, occasionally fiddle-shaped to pinnately lobed, ultimate margin entire or irregularly toothed, faces evenly gray-tomentose. Inflorescence: heads < 8 cm diam. Ray Flower: 22--30; ray (17)20--30 × 2--4 mm, adaxially white with narrow yellow proximal band, abaxially violet. Disk Flower: corolla gray-violet. Fruit: 2--3 mm, oblong, wings 3, cavities 2, lateral wings +- toothed and incurved into cavities; adaxially short-hairy; basal ring of many straight, forked hairs > fruit; pappus scales 16 in 2 unequal series, translucent, outer << than inner, inner > fruit. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Ecology: Uncommon. Escape from cultivation in coastal areas, roadsides; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo; Distribution Outside California: native to southern Africa. Flowering Time: Apr--Nov
Synonyms: Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius, misappl.
Jepson eFlora Author: Alison M. Mahoney & Robert J. McKenzie
Reference: Mahoney 2006 FNANM 19:198--199; Mahoney & McKenzie 2008 Madroño 55:244--257
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Arctotis
Next taxon: Argyranthemum

Name Search


Citation for this treatment: Alison M. Mahoney & Robert J. McKenzie 2012, Arctotis venusta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 28, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on November 28, 2020.

No expert verified images found for Arctotis venusta.

Geographic subdivisions for Arctotis venusta:
1. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
3. Filling of Jepson subdivision polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box.
4. Moving the cursor over any numbered cluster will show the range boundary of the included specimens (with a blue polygon).
5. Marker clustering can be turned off by clicking this link:      Marker Clustering OFF
WARNING: Turning this off might cause maps with large numbers of specimens to load slowly.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


View elevation by latitude chart

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).