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Vascular Plants of California
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Oenothera avita subsp. californica


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OenotheraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2--3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or +- purple, generally fading +- orange to +- purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or +- = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1--3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1--4 per fruit.
Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Unabridged Note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and +- 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Unabridged Reference: Raven & Gregory 1972 Mem Torrey Bot Club 23:1--96; Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1--91; Wagner 2005 Syst Bot 30(2):332--355
Species: Oenothera avitaView Description 


Habit: Perennial herb, rosetted when young, glabrous to densely minutely strigose, also sometimes with longer, spreading hairs; roots generally not fleshy, generally new shoots from laterals. Stem: decumbent or ascending, 1--8 dm, peeling. Leaf: cauline 1--6 cm, lanceolate to deltate-ovate, entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: flowers in distal axils; buds nodding. Flower: hypanthium 20--40 mm; sepals 15--30 mm, free tips in bud 0 or < 1 mm; petals 15--35 mm, white fading pink. Fruit: 2--3 mm wide, cylindric, straight or curved. Seed: in 1 row per chamber, 1.4--3 mm, obovate, smooth. Chromosomes: 2n=14,28.
Note: Cross-pollinated.
Reference: Wagner & Gandhi 2022 Harv Pap Bot 27:185--186
Oenothera avita (W.M. Klein) W.M. Klein subsp. californica (S. Watson) W.L. Wagner & Gandhi
NATIVE
Habit: Plant green to slightly gray; hairs 0, or dense, short, appressed, also sometimes long, spreading. Stem: new rosettes not formed at tips. Leaf: cauline oblong to lanceolate, +- entire to deeply wavy-dentate. Fruit: 30--55 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Sandy or gravelly areas, open, coastal-sage scrub, chaparral, oak woodland; Elevation: < 1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s CW, SW, s DMtns (Little San Bernardino Mtns); Distribution Outside California: northwestern Baja California. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Intergrades with Oenothera avita subsp. avita.
Synonyms: Oenothera californica (S. Watson) S. Watson subsp. californica, illeg., later homonym; Oenothera californica var. glabrata Munz
Jepson eFlora Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Oenothera avita subsp. californicabotanical illustration including Oenothera avita subsp. californica


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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner 2017, Oenothera avita subsp. californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 5, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=85245, accessed on July 14, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 14, 2024.

No expert verified images found for Oenothera avita subsp. californica.



Geographic subdivisions for Oenothera avita subsp. californica:
c&s CW, SW, s DMtns (Little San Bernardino Mtns)
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).






 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).