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Vascular Plants of California
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Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: XanthismaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, from taproot or +- branched caudex. Leaf: simple, alternate, entire to deeply 1--2-pinnately lobed, teeth or lobes bristle-tipped, distal reduced. Inflorescence: heads radiate [discoid], 1 or in cyme-like clusters; involucre hemispheric [obconic, bell-shaped]; phyllaries graduated in 2--8 series, proximally straw-colored, distally generally green, bristle-tipped; receptacle flat to convex, with short, triangular scales, glabrous, epaleate. Ray Flower: [0]8--many; corolla yellow [white, pink, blue, or purple]. Disk Flower: 10--many; corolla yellow; anther tip lanceolate; style tips triangular to linear. Fruit: elliptic, oblong, or obovoid, several- to many-ribbed, sparsely to densely hairy; pappus of many unequal bristles (ray pappus occasionally 0).
Species In Genus: 17 species: temperate western North America. Etymology: (Greek: yellow condition, describing flower heads of original sp.)
eFlora Treatment Author: David R. Morgan
Reference: Hartman 2006 FNANM 20:383--393
Unabridged Reference: Morgan & Hartman 2003 Sida 20:1387--1416
Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D.R. Morgan & R.L. Hartm. var. gooddingii (A. Nelson) D.R. Morgan & R.L. Hartm.
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: erect or ascending, 2--6 dm, generally leafy, at least in proximal 1/2, +- glandular-puberulent to canescent. Leaf: 2--5 cm, proximal 1--2-pinnately lobed, glabrous or sparsely hairy, stalked-glandular. Inflorescence: head 1, peduncle long, bracts few, well separated, not grading into phyllaries; involucre 6--9 mm, 10--18 mm wide, hemispheric; phyllaries lance-linear, prominently glandular-puberulent and scabrous. Ray Flower: 30--45; ray 6--16 mm, yellow. Disk Flower: many; corolla 4--6 mm. Fruit: 2--3 mm, appressed-hairy; pappus 3--5 mm, tan.
Ecology: Rocky places, washes; creosote-bush scrub; Elevation: < 900 m. Bioregional Distribution: se DMoj, ne DSon; Distribution Outside California: Nevada, Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Feb--May, Sep--Oct Note: Widespread and variable; 7 varieties in southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
Synonyms: Machaeranthera pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners var. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & R.L. Hartm.; Machaeranthera pinnatifida subsp. gooddingii (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner & R.L. Hartm., in part
Jepson eFlora Author: David R. Morgan
Reference: Hartman 2006 FNANM 20:383--393
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: David R. Morgan 2012, Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 16, 2021.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2021, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on January 16, 2021.

Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii
click for enlargement
© 2020 Neal Kramer
Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii
click for enlargement
© 2020 Neal Kramer
Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson
Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson
Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii
click for enlargement
© 2020 Neal Kramer
Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson

More photos of Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii:
se DMoj, ne DSon
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).