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Vascular Plants of California
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Pseudognaphalium thermale

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Viguiera in Aldama and Bahiopsis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PseudognaphaliumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally taprooted. Stem: 1--several from base, generally woolly-tomentose, sometimes stalked- or sessile-glandular. Leaf: basal and cauline or mostly cauline, often +- clasping and/or decurrent, generally narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire, +- tomentose, sometimes adaxially glandular. Inflorescence: heads disciform, generally in tight groups in flat-topped to cyme- or panicle-like cluster; involucre cylindric to generally urn-shaped, +- bell-shaped when pressed; phyllaries graduated in (2)3--7(10) series, persistent, +- spreading when dry, bases generally green, distally generally sessile-glandular, tips generally stiff-papery, opaque or clear, dull or shiny, +- white, rosy, tawny, or brown; receptacle flat to convex, epaleate, glabrous. Pistillate Flower: many; corolla narrowly tubular, minutely lobed, +- yellow to +- red. Disk Flower: few; corolla yellow or +- red; anther tip +- triangular; style branches truncate, hair-tufted. Fruit: oblong-compressed or cylindric, glabrous or +- papillate; pappus bristles in 1 series, deciduous, generally free, or weakly coherent.
Etymology: (Greek: deceptively similar to Gnaphalium, a related genus)
eFlora Treatment Author: Guy L. Nesom
Reference: Nesom 2006 FNANM 19:415--425
Unabridged Reference: Nesom 2004 Sida 21:781--790
Pseudognaphalium thermale (E.E. Nelson) G.L. Nesom
Habit: Perennial herb, scented. Stem: 2--7 dm, loosely tomentose, not glandular. Leaf: proximally or not crowded, 3--8 cm, 3--6 mm wide, reduced distally on stem, narrowly oblanceolate, not clasping, decurrent 5--18 mm, flat, faces loosely tomentose, sessile-glandular beneath long hairs. Inflorescence: loose to dense, flat-topped to panicle-like cluster; involucre (4)5--6 mm, top- to bell-shaped when pressed; phyllaries in 3--4(5) series, ovate to ovate-oblong, +- white, transparent or opaque, generally shiny, sometimes dull, outer widely acute, inner rounded to short-pointed, glabrous. Pistillate Flower: 35--55. Disk Flower: (2)4--7. Fruit: ridged, densely papillate-roughened.
Ecology: Openings in forest, riverbeds, banks, roadsides; Elevation: 100--2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRO, CaRH, c&s SNF, SNH, SnGb, SnBr, SnJt, PR (Cuyamaca Mtns), SNE; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Wyoming, Utah. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep
Synonyms: Gnaphalium canescens DC. subsp. thermale (E.E. Nelson) Stebbins & D.J. Keil; Gnaphalium thermale E.E. Nelson; Gnaphalium microcephalum Nutt. var. thermale (E.E. Nelson) Cronquist; Pseudognaphalium microcephalum (Nutt.) Anderb. var. thermale (E.E. Nelson) Dorn
Jepson eFlora Author: Guy L. Nesom
Reference: Nesom 2006 FNANM 19:415--425
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Guy L. Nesom 2012, Pseudognaphalium thermale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 20, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 20, 2024.

Pseudognaphalium thermale
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©2009 Barry Breckling

More photos of Pseudognaphalium thermale
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Geographic subdivisions for Pseudognaphalium thermale:
KR, NCoRO, CaRH, c&s SNF, SNH, SnGb, SnBr, SnJt, PR (Cuyamaca Mtns), SNE
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).