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Gastridium phleoides

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: GastridiumView Description 

Habit: Annual. Stem: ascending to erect. Leaf: basal and lower cauline; ligule +- translucent; blade flat. Inflorescence: panicle-like, narrow, compact; branches generally appressed to ascending. Spikelet: stalked, 3--5 mm, laterally compressed; glumes unequal, membranous at swollen base, 1-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged as a minute bristle; lemma << glumes, translucent, truncate to obtuse, awned or not, 5-veined; palea +- = lemma; anthers 3.
Species In Genus: 2 species: warm temperate Europe, northern Africa, western Asia. Etymology: (Greek: small pouch, from swollen glume base)
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr. & Dieter H. Wilken
Reference: Wipff 2007 FNANM 24:675--677
Gastridium phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C.E. Hubb.
Habit: Plant (1)2--4(7) dm, generally glabrous. Leaf: ligule 1--7 mm; blade (2)4--9(20) cm, (1)3--5 mm wide. Inflorescence: 1.5--9 cm, 4--10 mm wide. Spikelet: glumes translucent between veins, keel minutely scabrous, lower glume 6--7 mm, upper 3--5 mm; axis extended < 1 mm; lemma +- 1 mm, densely pubescent, awned below truncate, toothed tip, awn 3--6 mm, straight to curved. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Open, generally dry, disturbed sites; Elevation: generally < 1450 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Oregon, Canada, northeastern United States; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Nov
Synonyms: Gastridium ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thell., misappl.
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr. & Dieter H. Wilken
Reference: Wipff 2007 FNANM 24:675--677
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Gastridium phleoides

botanical illustration including Gastridium phleoides


Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. & Dieter H. Wilken 2012, Gastridium phleoides, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 23, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 23, 2022.

Gastridium phleoides
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Gastridium phleoides
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Gastridium phleoides
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Gastridium phleoides
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Gastridium phleoides
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Gastridium phleoides
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© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Gastridium phleoides in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Gastridium phleoides:
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).