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Vascular Plants of California
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Ehrharta longiflora

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: EhrhartaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VELDT GRASS
Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally erect, 6--200 cm. Leaf: auricle generally ciliate; ligule generally membranous, truncate, irregularly torn; blade flat, linear to lanceolate. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like; branches spreading to erect; spikelets sessile to stalked. Spikelet: 2--17 mm, cylindric or laterally compressed; glumes +- equal to unequal, < to > florets, generally ovate; axis breaking above glumes, falling as 1 unit; florets 3, lower 2 sterile; sterile lemma glabrous or pubescent, firmer than glumes, awned or not, lower generally auricled; palea 0; upper floret bisexual, lemma membranous, becoming hard at maturity, 5--7-veined, awn 0; palea 1--2(5)-veined; stamens 3 or 6 (in California).
Etymology: (J.F. Ehrhart, German botanist, student of Linnaeus, 1742--1795)
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Barkworth 2007 FNANM 24:33--36
Unabridged Reference: Gibbs Russell & Ellis 1987 Bothalia 17:51--65
Ehrharta longiflora Sm.
Habit: Annual. Stem: 15--90 cm, erect or bent basally. Leaf: sheath veined, keeled, auricles ciliate; ligule 1--2.5 mm, blade 6--20 cm, 2--15 mm wide, flat, +- hairy. Inflorescence: generally panicle-like, 10--20 cm, branches ascending or spreading, sometimes raceme-like; 2° inflorescence often found at lower nodes. Spikelet: 8--18 mm; glumes 3--6 mm, to 1.5 mm wide; sterile lemma 9--12 mm, hard at maturity, glabrous or short-hairy, 3--7-veined, awns 2--20 mm; fertile lemma 8--10 mm, 7-veined, awn 0; palea 2-veined; stamens 3. Chromosomes: 2n=24,48.
Ecology: Disturbed sites, often on sandy or loamy soils; Elevation: < 900 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, PR; Distribution Outside California: only occurrences in North America; native to southern Africa. Flowering Time: Apr--May
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Barkworth 2007 FNANM 24:33--36
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
View the CDFA Pest Rating page for Ehrharta longiflora
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Ehrharta longiflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 29, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 29, 2024.

Ehrharta longiflora
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©2015 Keir Morse
Ehrharta longiflora
click for enlargement
©2015 Keir Morse
Ehrharta longiflora
click for enlargement
©2015 Keir Morse
Ehrharta longiflora
click for enlargement
©2015 Keir Morse
Ehrharta longiflora
click for enlargement
©2015 Keir Morse

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Geographic subdivisions for Ehrharta longiflora:
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).