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Vascular Plants of California
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Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApocynaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1--2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal +- 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, +- elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen +- free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or +- so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1--2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
Genera In Family: 200--450 genera, 3000--5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. Note: Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: FunastrumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: generally twining or trailing. Leaf: opposite, generally +- persistent; blade thread-like to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: at nodes, umbel-[raceme-]like cyme. Flower: corolla lobes +- spreading to erect-incurved, ring of tissue at corolla base present or not; filament column appendages +- 0 or free from each other, fused to ring of tissue at corolla base or not, +- spheric, attached to base of filament column, without projections, hollow (possibly due to complete fusion of margins), anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or, if +- conic, 2-lobed or not; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: generally 1, erect or pendent, narrow-fusiform to lance-ovoid, with fine longitudinal grooves [or smooth]. Chromosomes: 2n=20,22,40,44 (reports not including California plants).
Etymology: (Greek: fleshy crown or wreath, from sac-like filament column appendages of some species) Note: Our species treated as Cynanchum, Sarcostemma in TJM (1993), both shown to be polyphyletic in previous, broader circumscriptions (Liede & Täuber 2000, 2002).
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Liede & Täuber 2002 Syst Bot 27:789--800
Unabridged Reference: Holm 1950 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 37:477--560; Liede 1996 Syst Bot 21:31--44; Liede-Schumann & Meve 2006; Liede & Täuber 2000 Pl Syst Evol 225:133--140; Sundell 1981 Evol Monogr 5:1--63
Funastrum cynanchoides (Decne.) Schltr. var. hartwegii (Vail) Krings
Habit: Plant green, generally with sparse, +- appressed hairs. Leaf: petiole 7--15 mm, blade 30--60 mm, narrow-lanceolate, base hastate (or cordate to wedge-shaped). Flower: corolla 4--8 mm, pink to purple or lobes white, each with purple streak centrally, ring of tissue at base free from filament column appendages, lobes +- spreading to +- erect. Fruit: generally 1, 7.2--11.2 cm.
Ecology: Dry, sandy, rocky arroyos or plains; Elevation: 30--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, PR, D; Distribution Outside California: to Utah, Arkansas, Texas, Mexico. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Synonyms: Funastrum cynanchoides subsp. heterophyllum (Engelm. ex Torr.) Kartesz, inval.; Philibertella hartwegii Vail; Philibertia heterophylla Jeps.; Sarcostemma cynanchoides Decne. subsp. hartwegii (Vail) R.W. Holm
Unabridged Note: Putative hybrids with Funastrum cynanchoides var. cynanchoides (leaf wide-lanceolate, base cordate, rarely truncate; 2n=20; southern Arizona to Arkansas) in low numbers in areas of geographic overlap, despite the fact that Funastrum cynanchoides var. cynanchoides begins to flower nearly 2 months later than Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii.
Jepson eFlora Author: Thomas J. Rosatti
Reference: Liede & Täuber 2002 Syst Bot 27:789--800
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Funastrum crispum
Next taxon: Funastrum hirtellum

Botanical illustration including Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegiibotanical illustration including Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii

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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2012, Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 15, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 15, 2024.

Funastrum cynanchoides  
var. hartwegii
click for image enlargement
©2010 Steve Matson
Funastrum cynanchoides  
var. hartwegii
click for image enlargement
©2016 Keir Morse
Funastrum cynanchoides  
var. hartwegii
click for image enlargement
©2016 Keir Morse
Funastrum cynanchoides  
var. hartwegii
click for image enlargement
©2009 Neal Kramer
Funastrum cynanchoides  
var. hartwegii
click for image enlargement
©2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii:
SCo, PR, D
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map of distribution 1

(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurrence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.

View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month Flowering-Fruiting Monthly Counts

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).