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Vascular Plants of California
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Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert W. Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: CastillejaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: +- asymmetric. Seed: generally +- brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744--1793) Note: Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Reference: Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608--625
Unabridged Reference: Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644--666
Species: Castilleja miniataView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb 40--80 cm, few-branched, green or becoming +- purple, glabrous, to long-soft-hairy distally. Leaf: 30--60 mm, +- lanceolate, entire; tip acute. Inflorescence: 3--15 cm; bracts 15--35 mm, lobes 0--5, acute, bright red to +- yellow. Flower: calyx divided 2/3+ abaxially, 1/2--2/3 adaxially, +- 1/4 on sides, lobes acute; corolla beak +- = tube, yellow-green, adaxially puberulent, margins red, lower lip 1--2 mm, dark green, slightly exserted; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Seed: 1.5--2 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting, inner walls membranous, persistent.

Castilleja miniata Douglas ex Hook. subsp. miniata
Stem: stout. Inflorescence: generally bright red (orange-red). Flower: calyx 15--30 mm; corolla 20--40 mm. Fruit: 10--12 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=24,48,72,96,120.
Ecology: Common. Wet montane meadows, streambanks; Elevation: (350)1500--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SNH, c CCo, SCoRO, SW, GB. Flowering Time: May--Sep Note: If recognized taxonomically, plants in lowland southern NCoRO (Pitkin Marsh, Sonoma Co., +- 60 m) with yellow inflorescence assignable to Castilleja uliginosa Eastw., Pitkin Marsh paintbrush.
Synonyms: Castilleja oblongifolia A. Gray
Jepson eFlora Author: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard
Reference: Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608--625
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata

botanical illustration including Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata

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Citation for this treatment: Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard 2012, Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 17, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 17, 2024.

Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata
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©2009 Barry Breckling
Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata
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©2008 Keir Morse
Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata
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©2017 Neal Kramer
Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata
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©2012 Gary A. Monroe
Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata
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©2006 George W. Hartwell

More photos of Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata:
NW, CaR, SNH, c CCo, SCoRO, SW, GB.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).