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Vascular Plants of California
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Menodora spinescens var. spinescens


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OleaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: OLIVE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; rarely dioecious. Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4--15; petals (0)4--6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4--5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2--4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber.
Genera In Family: +- 25 genera, 900 species: +- worldwide; some cultivated for ornamental (Forsythia; Jasminum, jasmine; Ligustrum, privet; Syringa, lilac) or food (Olea, olive).
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MenodoraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb to shrub. Leaf: simple, opposite or alternate, sessile or short-petioled, entire to lobed, prominently 1-veined below. Inflorescence: axillary cluster or terminal compound cyme. Flower: bisexual; calyx persistent, lobes (4)5--10(12), +- linear; corolla +- rotate or funnel-shaped, lobes (4)5(8); style slender, stigma head-like, +- 2-lobed. Fruit: papery capsule, deeply 2-lobed to near base. Seed: 2--4[8].
Species In Genus: +- 23 species: America, southern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: gift of force, for sustenance provided to horses of Humboldt and Bonpland in Mexico)
eFlora Treatment Author: Timothy Chumley
Reference: Chumley 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ Texas, Austin
Unabridged Reference: Turner 1991 Phytologia 712:340--356; Steyermark 1932 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 19:87--176
Species: Menodora spinescensView Description 


Habit: Shrub, dense, mounded, 2--5(6) dm. Stem: many from generally short, stout trunk, spreading to ascending, round in ×-section, densely puberulent, terminating in thorns, these often appearing forked at ends of major branches. Leaf: alternate (leaf-like bracts appearing clustered on short flower shoots), sessile, (2)4--10(16) mm, linear-oblanceolate to oblanceolate, 3-cleft to middle, densely puberulent, generally only present at flower. Inflorescence: axillary, compact cluster. Flower: calyx puberulent, lobes (4)5--6(8), (1.8)2--4(5) mm, linear; corolla white tinged red or purple, red in bud, lobes 4--5(6), obovate. Fruit: each lobe +- indehiscent, opening irregularly, (5)6.3--7.9(9) mm, +- glabrous to slightly scabrous. Seed: generally 2; (5)5.7--7.2(8) mm, elliptic to obovate in outline, planoconvex to lenticular in ×-section, seed coat appearing smooth, shiny.

Menodora spinescens A. Gray var. spinescens
NATIVE
Flower: unisexual or bisexual, calyx tube in flower generally < 1.4 mm; filaments < 1 mm, anthers generally appearing sessile; bisexual flowers in showier, denser inflorescence, flowers larger. Pistillate Flower: corolla tube (2.5)2.6--3.7(3.8) mm, lobes (1)1.2--2.2; anthers green, < 1 mm, included, separate; stigma well exserted, head-like or 2-lobed. Bisexual Flower: corolla tube (4)4.3--5.1(5.2) mm, lobes (1.9)2--2.9(3) mm; filaments 0.5--2 mm, anthers 2 mm, yellow, 1/2-exserted; stigma exserted, exceeding anthers, 2-forked.
Ecology: Rocky desert hillsides, canyons; Elevation: 690--2000(2300) m. Bioregional Distribution: SnBr (n slope), s SNE, n&e DMoj exc DMtns; Distribution Outside California: southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, northwestern Arizona. Flowering Time: Apr--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Timothy Chumley
Reference: Chumley 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ Texas, Austin
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Menodora spinescens var. mohavensis
Next taxon: Olea

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Citation for this treatment: Timothy Chumley 2012, Menodora spinescens var. spinescens, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=72864, accessed on May 26, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on May 26, 2020.

Menodora spinescens var. spinescens
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Menodora spinescens var. spinescens
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Menodora spinescens var. spinescens
click for enlargement
© 2017 Steve Matson
Menodora spinescens var. spinescens
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Menodora spinescens var. spinescens
click for enlargement
© 2017 Steve Matson
Menodora spinescens var. spinescens
click for enlargement
© 2017 Steve Matson

More photos of Menodora spinescens var. spinescens in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Menodora spinescens var. spinescens:
SnBr (n slope), s SNE, n&e DMoj exc DMtns
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).