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Vascular Plants of California
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Fritillaria biflora var. biflora


Higher Taxonomy
Family: LiliaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: LILY FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, +- umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or +- fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or +- so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3--many, flat or angled, brown to black.
Genera In Family: 16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Note: Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: FritillariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FRITILLARY
Habit: Bulb with 1--several large fleshy scales, 0--many small scales. Stem: erect, simple (0 in non-flowering plants). Leaf: cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled below, sessile, linear to +- ovate (1 bulb-leaf in non-flowering plants). Inflorescence: raceme; bracts leaf-like. Flower: generally nodding, bell- or cup-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 whorls, each part with distinct glandular area in lower 1/2; stamens 6, included, attached at perianth base, anthers attached +- near middle; ovary +- sessile, style 1, +- entire or 3-branched. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, thin-walled, +- rounded, 6-angled, or winged, chambers 3. Seed: many, 2 rows per chamber, flat, +- brown.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: northern temperate. Etymology: (Latin: dicebox, from fruit shape) Note: Bulbs of some eaten by Native Americans.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness
Unabridged Reference: Turrill & Sealy 1980 Hooker's Icones Plantarum 34:1--275
Species: Fritillaria bifloraView Description 


Common Name: CHOCOLATE LILY, MISSION BELLS
Habit: Large bulb scales 2--8, small 0--4. Stem: 1--4.5 dm. Leaf: 3--7, alternate, often +- crowded just above ground, 5--19 cm, linear or oblong to narrowly ovate. Flower: nodding; perianth parts 1.8--4 cm, narrowly ovoid, dark brown, green-purple, or yellow-green, nectary prominent, 2/3 perianth, narrowly linear, +- purple to +- green; style divided 1/2--2/3. Fruit: angled.

Fritillaria biflora Lindl. var. biflora
NATIVE
Leaf: 8--40 mm wide, oblong to narrowly ovate. Flower: 1.8--4 cm, not ill-scented. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Grassy slopes, mesas, serpentine barrens; Elevation: < 1300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo (Mendocino Co.), NCoR (Mendocino, Napa cos.), CW, SW. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Synonyms: Fritillaria roderickii W. Knight
Jepson eFlora Author: Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Fritillaria biflora var. biflora

botanical illustration including Fritillaria biflora var. biflora

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Citation for this treatment: Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness 2012, Fritillaria biflora var. biflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, /eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=72344, accessed on February 16, 2020.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2020, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on February 16, 2020.

Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
click for enlargement
© 2017 Keir Morse

More photos of Fritillaria biflora var. biflora in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Fritillaria biflora var. biflora:
NCo (Mendocino Co.), NCoR (Mendocino, Napa cos.), CW, SW.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).