Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Habit: Annual, 2.5--15+ cm, open, +- cushion-like; root, stem base red-purple. Stem: few to much branched +- throughout, branches ascending to erect, thread-like, strigose. Leaf: crowded at stem base and inflorescence, alternate, sessile; blade linear, oblong, or oblanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: flowers axillary on distal cyme axes or in branch forks, densely branched; inflorescence and flower bracts throughout; pedicel 0.5--0.8 mm, angled upward to horizontal. Flower: calyx +- 1--1.5 mm, 1.8--2.5 mm in fruit, +- persistent, sepals free to base, linear-oblong, hirsute; corolla limb 0.5--4 mm diam. Fruit: nutlets (3)4, 1--1.4 mm, +- lanceolate to lance-ovate, white-papillate or smooth, +- shiny, margin rounded, base rounded; abaxially rounded, ridge 0; adaxially +- flat, attachment scar edges narrow-gapped entire length, +- flared at base; style extended beyond nutlets.
Species In Genus: 2 species: western North America (southwestern United States, Baja California, Sonora). Etymology: (Greek: desert nut) Note: A segregate of Cryptantha strongly supported as a separate lineage by molecular phylogenetic studies (Hasenstab-Lehman & Simpson 2012; Simpson et al. 2017).
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael G. Simpson & Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Johnston 1925 Contr Gray Herbarium 74:1--125; Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13:1--63, 1979 Great Basin Naturalist 39:293--350; Simpson & Hasenstab 2009 Crossosoma 35:1--59; Hasenstab-Lehman & Simpson 2012 Syst Bot 37:738--757; Simpson et al. 2014 Madroño 61:259--275; Simpson et al. 2016 Madroño 63:39--54; Simpson et al. 2017 Taxon 66:1406--1420
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
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Citation for this treatment: Michael G. Simpson & Ronald B. Kelley 2021, Eremocarya, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 9,, accessed on April 23, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 23, 2024.