Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Zizania palustris var. interior

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: ZizaniaView Description 

Common Name: WILD RICE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, monoecious, aquatic. Stem: erect, emergent, < 5 m, < 1 cm wide. Leaf: ligule membranous, narrow; blade < 1.2 m, < 2.5 cm wide. Inflorescence: panicle-like; lower branches spreading to ascending, bearing staminate spikelets; upper branches ascending to erect, bearing pistillate spikelets. Staminate Spikelet: generally drooping; glumes vestigial, forming a collar-like ridge; floret 1; lemma linear, 5-veined, acuminate or awned; palea 3-veined; stamens 6. Pistillate Spikelet: generally ascending to erect, cylindric, angled, firm; glumes generally 0; floret 1, lemma 3-veined, long-tapered, awned. Fruit: 1--2 cm, cylindric, purple-black.
Species In Genus: 4 species: North America, eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek, Latin: name for a weed, probably darnel, growing in wheat fields)
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Terrell 2007 FNANM 24:47--51; Aiken et al. 1988 Publ Dept Agric Canada 1830
Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore
Habit: Annual. Stem: 1--3 m, puberulent at nodes. Leaf: 15--60 cm, 6--40+ mm wide. Inflorescence: 2--5 dm. Staminate Spikelet: 6--8 mm. Pistillate Spikelet: 10--20 mm; awn 5--40 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Generally muddy shores and shallow water; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: ScV (n SNF, MP, historic); Distribution Outside California: native to north-central and eastern United States, adjacent Canada. Flowering Time: Aug Note: Cultivated for food, waterfowl. Occasional ephemeral escape from cultivation.
Synonyms: Zizania aquatica L. var. angustifolia Hitchc.
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Terrell 2007 FNANM 24:47--51; Aiken et al. 1988 Publ Dept Agric Canada 1830
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Zizania
Next taxon: Pontederiaceae

Name Search


Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Zizania palustris var. interior, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 02, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 02, 2022.

No expert verified images found for Zizania palustris var. interior.

Geographic subdivisions for Zizania palustris var. interior:
ScV (n SNF, MP, historic)
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).