Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon

Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Viguiera in Aldama and Bahiopsis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis; Eucephalus in Doellingeria.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VerbesinaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub. Leaf: simple, opposite or alternate. Inflorescence: heads radiate [discoid], 1 or in few- to many-headed cyme-like clusters; phyllaries in 2--6 equal to very unequal series, free; receptacle flat to conic, paleate; paleae entire, folded around ovaries. Ray Flower: pistillate or sterile; corolla +- yellow [white]. Disk Flower: 60--150+ (in California); corolla yellow to orange; style branches acute to acuminate. Fruit: ray fruit 3-sided or 0; disk fruit +- elliptic to obovate, compressed, generally wing-margined; pappus 0 or of 2 awns.
Etymology: (Derived from Verbena)
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
Reference: Strother 2006 FNANM 21:106--111
Unabridged Reference: Coleman 1966 Madroño 18:129--137; Coleman 1966 Amer Midl Naturalist 76:475--481
Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray subsp. exauriculata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) J.R. Coleman
Habit: Plant 15--130 cm; odor unpleasant. Stem: densely short-hairy. Leaf: alternate except nodes near base opposite; blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, 3-veined from base, coarsely dentate. Inflorescence: heads 1--many; peduncle subtended by leaf-like bracts; phyllaries in 2 or 3 +- equal series, 8--10 mm, lance-linear, acute, +- strigose; paleae 6--8 mm, abruptly acuminate. Ray Flower: ray orange-yellow, generally 8--10 mm, +- 3-lobed. Disk Flower: corolla 5--6 mm; anthers yellow to light brown. Fruit: ray fruit 3--4 mm, obovoid, 3-sided, wing 0, pappus 0; disk fruit 4--6.5 mm, obovate, flattened, brown or black, soft-hairy, wing wide, +- white, corky, pappus awns 2, 1--2.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=34.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, roadsides, fields; Elevation: generally <= 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: SnJV, s CCo, SCoR, SCo, DSon; Distribution Outside California: western North America; native Arizona to Great Plains, Mexico. Toxicity: TOXIC to livestock but unpalatable. Flowering Time: May--Jan
Synonyms: Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray var. exauriculata B.L. Rob. & Greenm.
Unabridged Note: A 2nd variety in eastern North America.
Jepson eFlora Author: David J. Keil
Reference: Strother 2006 FNANM 21:106--111
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Verbesina dissita
Next taxon: Volutaria

Name Search

Botanical illustration including Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata

botanical illustration including Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata

Please use this Google Form for Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2012, Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 20, 2024.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2024, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 20, 2024.

Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata
click for enlargement
©2010 Barry Breckling
Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata
click for enlargement
©2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata:
SnJV, s CCo, SCoR, SCo, DSon
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).