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Vascular Plants of California
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Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
WHITE WATERLEAF


Higher Taxonomy
Family: HydrophyllaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, generally hairy, generally taprooted. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, generally raceme-like and coiled, or flowers 1. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla rotate to cylindric, generally deciduous, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chambers 1 or 2, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2--5-chambered, style 1, style branches 2, stigmas generally head-like. Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2.
Genera In Family: 12 genera, 240--260 species: especially western US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia). Note: Included in Boraginaceae in TJM2 and some other treatments (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20) but treated as separate family (excluding Namaceae) by Boraginales Working Group (Luebert et al. 2016).
eFlora Treatment Author: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert W. Patterson & Richard R. Halse, except as specified
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin
Genus: HydrophyllumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: WATERLEAF
Habit: [Biennial or] perennial herb from rhizomes [taproots]; roots fleshy-fibrous and fibrous [or tuber-like]. Stem: suberect to erect, simple or branched, fleshy, or 0 and leaves from rhizomes. Leaf: simple, pinnate-[palmate-]lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate, mottled-white in shade, short- to long-hairy or glabrous in age, glandular or not; blades oblong to ovate, rhombic, or round-cordate; petiole widened, proximally purple, bases clasping. Inflorescence: axillary from rhizome or above-ground stem; born +- at or well above soil surface, cymes paniculate or spheric; pedicels generally elongate in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes +- equal, alike in shape, enlarged in fruit, linear to narrowly oblong, narrowly ovate or triangular-lanceolate; corolla rotate or bell-shaped to funnel-shaped, white, cream, +- green, purple, or blue-purple; corolla scales linear, forming channeled pollinator guide; nectary glands present; stamens exserted, equal, attached at same level, filaments hairy at mid-level, not widened at base, not appendaged, not winged; ovary chamber appearing 1, style 1, exserted, glabrous, shallowly 2-lobed. Fruit: 3--5 mm, sub-spheric, cylindric, exceeded and loosely enclosed by calyx lobes, short- to long-hairy or occasionally becoming glabrous in age, glandular or not. Seed: 1--4, sub-spheric, cylindric, brown or yellow- or red-brown, irregularly net-veined, regularly pitted, attached fleshy structure 0.
Etymology: Greek: water leaf Note: Hydrophyllum capitatum var. alpinum raised to species rank, as Hydrophyllum alpestre. Hydrophyllum dimorphic in leaf shape and color depending on whether canopy is closed or open: cotyledons and first few leaves green under open canopy; these replaced by basal rosette of mottled-white leaves under closed canopy, some leaves of which may persist to bolting stage. Leaves without mottling occur at all growth stages under open canopy.
eFlora Treatment Author: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert W. Patterson & Richard R. Halse
Reference: Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710--731
Unabridged Reference: Beckmann 1979 Amer J Bot 66:1053--1061
Hydrophyllum fendleri (A. Gray) A. Heller var. albifrons (A. Heller) J.F. Macbr.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 20--50(--60) cm; rhizome short to long, +- at soil surface, appearing overlapping-scaly from persistent petiole bases. Stem: ascending to erect in flower, ascending or +- prostrate in fruit, or reduced. Leaf: adaxially sparsely short- to long-hairy, hairs appressed, abaxially densely short- to long-hairy, hairs +- appressed, generally glaucous; first leaves 1--4 cm, 1--4 cm wide, blades oblong, pinnate-lobed, lobes 5--11, toothed or lobed, petiole 1--5 cm; later leaves 5--15(--20) cm, 5--15 cm wide, blades oblong to oval, pinnate-lobed to compound, lobes 7--13(--19), toothed or lobed, petiole 3--18 cm. Inflorescence: cymes open spheric or sometimes paniculate, 1--2(--3) cymes/ stem, well above soil surface, equal to or exceeding leaves of flowering stem; peduncles 2--18 cm, ascending to erect in fruit, densely short- to long-hairy, some hairs retrorse; pedicels 2--10 mm in flower, 5--15(--20) mm, spreading to reflexed in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 3--4 mm, 0.5--1.5 mm wide in flower, 4--6 mm, 0.5--2 mm in fruit, linear to linear-lanceolate or narrowly oblong; corolla 7--11 mm, bell-shaped, white, purple, limb 6--10 mm diam; stamens 9--17 mm, exserted 3--6 mm; style 9--14 mm. Fruit: 3--5 mm diam, short- to long-hairy. Seed: 1--3, 2--3 mm diam, light- or dark-brown. Chromosomes: n=9.
Ecology: Moist, shady, wooded slopes; Elevation: [300]1100--2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho. Flowering Time: May--Sep. Note: Var. fendleri mainly in southern Rocky Mountains (Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico), overlaps with var. albifrons in southeastern Washington, west central Idaho, and northeastern Oregon, where plants occur with corollas white, lobes purple-veined, -marked, or -spotted.
Synonyms: Hydrophyllum albifrons A. Heller; Hydrophyllum albifrons subvar. pendulum Brand; Hydrophyllum congestum Wiegand
Jepson eFlora Author: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert W. Patterson & Richard R. Halse
Reference: Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710--731
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons

botanical illustration including Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons

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Citation for this treatment: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert W. Patterson & Richard R. Halse 2021, Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 9, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=60117, accessed on October 01, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 01, 2022.

Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
click for enlargement
© 2013 Dana York
Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
click for enlargement
© 2013 Dana York
Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
click for enlargement
© 2013 Dana York
Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
click for enlargement
© 2013 Dana York
Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
click for enlargement
© 2013 Dana York
Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
click for enlargement
© 2013 Dana York

More photos of Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons:
KR
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).