Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon


Cryptantha muricata var. muricata
SHOWY PRICKLY-NUT CRYPTANTHA


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Genus: CryptanthaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual. Stem: branches generally ascending to erect, minutely strigose (hairs distally oriented) and/or soft- to rough-bristly. Leaf: generally sessile, basal and cauline; basal generally not well-developed, often withering at flowering, cauline generally alternate (proximal opposite), distal reduced; generally strigose and/or soft- or rough-bristly, largest bristles generally bulbous-based. Inflorescence: generally terminal, raceme-like or generally spike-like cymes, in groups of 1--5s(>5), generally coiled in bud, generally elongated in fruit; bracts generally 0, flowers also mostly without subtending bracts; pedicel 0--1.5(--3) mm in fruit. Flower: generally unscented; calyx generally lengthening in fruit, appressed to spreading (or recurved) in fruit, persistent or not at maturity, lobes separate to base; corolla deciduous, tube generally = calyx in flower, limb 0.5--11 mm diam, generally rotate, occasionally +- funnelform, white, appendages generally present, 5; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed; receptacle elongate, terminating in style and stigma. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, similar or less commonly dissimilar, if dissimilar single different nutlet positioned toward inflorescence axis, nutlets symmetric (or asymmetric), flattened or not, generally gray to brown, often mottled, smooth to tubercled, and/or papillate, dull to shiny, margin rounded, sharp-edged, or a +- flat linear rim or wing; abaxially longitudinal ridge present or not; adaxially grooved above centered attachment scar, groove extending to nutlet tip, attachment scar edges abutted entire length to variably gapped, often fork- or flare-gapped at base; style from receptacle axis extending << or > tip of nutlet(s).
Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some South American species, including the type species) Note: Other taxa in TJM2 moved to Eremocarya, Greeneocharis, Johnstonella, Oreocarya. Homostylous (see Oreocarya). The tissue between ovary lobes, interpreted as a modified receptacle, extends to various degrees in fruit, forming what is often called the gynobase, to which the nutlets are laterally attached at maturity, leaving an attachment scar. A single style with a minute stigma arises from the gynobase. The extension of the style tip/stigma relative to the height/length of the nutlet(s) can be important in identification. Species without yellow corolla appendages are generally thought to be self-pollinating, but there is no direct evidence for this. Some species, e.g., Cryptantha ambigua, Cryptantha barbigera, Cryptantha mariposae, are thought to hybridize with co-occurring species. Observation of nutlets, hairs best at 10+ × generally critical for identification. Corolla limb diam much < at end of flowering period, especially noticeable for large-flowered taxa; measurements here attempt to reflect this developmental change, which far exceeds population differences for most taxa. 2n=(12)20, 24 (North American taxa). Some South American species are perennial, cleistogamous, and/or polyploid. One taxon, C. maritima var. pilosa, is found in both North and South America.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman, Makenzie E. Mabry, and Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Johnston 1925 Contr Gray Herbarium 74:1--125; Simpson & Hasenstab 2009 Crossosoma 35:1--59; Hasenstab-Lehman & Simpson 2012 Syst Bot 37:738--757; Simpson et al. 2013 Madroño 60:24--34; Mabry et al. 2016 Phytotaxa 253:97--130; Simpson & Kelley 2017 Phytotaxa 295:227--236; Simpson et al. 2017 Taxon 66:1406--1420; Mabry & Simpson 2018 Syst Bot 43:53--76; Simpson & Rebman 2021 Phytotaxa 509:185--210; Simpson & Rebman 2022 Madroño 69: in press.
Species: Cryptantha muricataView Description 


Habit: Plant 10--100 cm, generally stout, generally gray- to yellow-green; root occasionally red-purple. Leaf: 0.5--5+ cm, linear to narrow-oblanceolate. Inflorescence: cymes in (1s) 2s to 5s; bracts generally 0; pedicel < 0.5 mm. Flower: calyx in fruit generally ascending, occasionally spreading, wide-ovoid to ovoid, lobes +- lanceolate, tips +- constricted to erect, margins occasionally +- yellow, dense-ascending rough-hairy, midvein +- thickened. Fruit: nutlets (2)3--4, occasionally mottled, ovate, margin generally sharp-angled, base truncate; adaxially attachment scar edges not raised.

Cryptantha muricata (Hook. & Arn.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. var. muricata
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 10--60 cm; root occasionally red-purple. Stem: generally 1, central axis evident, branches few to many, generally proximal, occasionally throughout, long, laxly-ascending; dense-strigose, soft-hairy, and conspicuously spreading-rough-hairy. Leaf: generally many, reduced distally on stem; densely +- appressed-soft-hairy and sparse- to dense-spreading-rough-hairy. Flower: occasionally scented; calyx 1.5--2 mm, 3--4 mm in fruit, +- early-deciduous, lobe tips generally erect, midvein +- sparse-spreading-rough-hairy, occasionally bristly; corolla late-deciduous, limb (3--)4--8 mm diam, appendages yellow. Fruit: nutlets 1.6--2.1 mm, densely coarse-tubercled, tip +- acute; abaxially +- convex, ridge rounded to obscure; adaxially +- flat, attachment scar edges abutted to narrow-gapped entire length, forked-gapped at base; style extended > nutlet length.
Ecology: Gravelly, sandy soils, generally granitic, coastal scrub, chaparral, foothill woodland, occasionally open conifer forest; Elevation: 25--2130 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SnJV, CW (exc CCo), SW. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael G. Simpson, Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman, Makenzie E. Mabry, and Ronald B. Kelley
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

Previous taxon: Cryptantha muricata var. jonesii
Next taxon: Cryptantha nemaclada

Name Search

Botanical illustration including Cryptantha muricata var. muricata

botanical illustration including Cryptantha muricata var. muricata

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Michael G. Simpson, Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman, Makenzie E. Mabry, and Ronald B. Kelley 2021, Cryptantha muricata var. muricata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 9, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=57145, accessed on October 01, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 01, 2022.

Cryptantha muricata var. muricata
click for enlargement
© 2011 Michael G. Simpson
Cryptantha muricata var. muricata
click for enlargement
© 2011 Michael G. Simpson
Cryptantha muricata var. muricata
click for enlargement
© 2011 Michael G. Simpson

More photos of Cryptantha muricata var. muricata in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Cryptantha muricata var. muricata:
s SnJV, CW (exc CCo), SW.
MAP CONTROLS
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
MAP LEGEND
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).