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Vascular Plants of California
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Cryptantha clevelandii var. clevelandii
CLEVELAND'S CRYPTANTHA


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, or shrub, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate-decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple, generally alternate, sometimes opposite, especially at base. Inflorescence: cymes, arranged singly or in groups of 2--5, generally coiled in flower, generally elongating in fruit. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused at least at base; corolla 5-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages (often called "fornices") 0 or 5 at top of tube, when present often differentially pigmented, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, 4-lobed, style 1, entire or minutely 2-lobed (2-branched). Fruit: nutlets 1--4, when > 1, all similar (often called "homomorphic") or 1 or 2 dissimilar in size and/or shape from the others (often called "heteromorphic"), free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 1600--1700 species: mostly temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Sometimes still treated in broader sense of TJM2 (e.g., APG IV 2016 Bot J Linn Soc 181:1--20), but recent evidence (Luebert et al. 2016) supports segregation, for our flora, of the families Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae, and Namaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman & Ronald B. Kelley
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, C. Matt Guilliams, Kristen Hasenstab-Lehman, David J. Keil, Ronald B. Kelley, Robert W. Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti & Michael G. Simpson
Genus: CryptanthaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual. Stem: branches generally ascending to erect, minutely strigose (hairs distally oriented) and/or soft- to rough-bristly. Leaf: generally sessile, basal and cauline; basal generally not well-developed, often withering at flowering, cauline generally alternate (proximal opposite), distal reduced; generally strigose and/or soft- or rough-bristly, largest bristles generally bulbous-based. Inflorescence: generally terminal, raceme-like or generally spike-like cymes, in groups of 1--5s(>5), generally coiled in bud, generally elongated in fruit; bracts generally 0, flowers also mostly without subtending bracts; pedicel 0--1.5(--3) mm in fruit. Flower: generally unscented; calyx generally lengthening in fruit, appressed to spreading (or recurved) in fruit, persistent or not at maturity, lobes separate to base; corolla deciduous, tube generally = calyx in flower, limb 0.5--11 mm diam, generally rotate, occasionally +- funnelform, white, appendages generally present, 5; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed; receptacle elongate, terminating in style and stigma. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, similar or less commonly dissimilar, if dissimilar single different nutlet positioned toward inflorescence axis, nutlets symmetric (or asymmetric), flattened or not, generally gray to brown, often mottled, smooth to tubercled, and/or papillate, dull to shiny, margin rounded, sharp-edged, or a +- flat linear rim or wing; abaxially longitudinal ridge present or not; adaxially grooved above centered attachment scar, groove extending to nutlet tip, attachment scar edges abutted entire length to variably gapped, often fork- or flare-gapped at base; style from receptacle axis extending << or > tip of nutlet(s).
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: western North America, western to southern South America. Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some South American species, including the type species) Note: Other taxa in TJM2 moved to Eremocarya, Greeneocharis, Johnstonella, Oreocarya. Homostylous (see Oreocarya). The tissue between ovary lobes, interpreted as a modified receptacle, extends to various degrees in fruit, forming what is often called the gynobase, to which the nutlets are laterally attached at maturity, leaving an attachment scar. A single style with a minute stigma arises from the gynobase. The extension of the style tip/stigma relative to the height/length of the nutlet(s) can be important in identification. Species without yellow corolla appendages are generally thought to be self-pollinating, but there is no direct evidence for this. Some species, e.g., Cryptantha ambigua, Cryptantha barbigera, Cryptantha mariposae, are thought to hybridize with co-occurring species. Observation of nutlets, hairs best at 10+ × generally critical for identification. Corolla limb diam much < at end of flowering period, especially noticeable for large-flowered taxa; measurements here attempt to reflect this developmental change, which far exceeds population differences for most taxa. 2n=(12)20, 24 (North American taxa). Some South American species are perennial, cleistogamous, and/or polyploid. One taxon, C. maritima var. pilosa, is found in both North and South America.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael G. Simpson, Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman, Makenzie E. Mabry, and Ronald B. Kelley
Unabridged Reference: Johnston 1925 Contr Gray Herbarium 74:1--125; Simpson & Hasenstab 2009 Crossosoma 35:1--59; Hasenstab-Lehman & Simpson 2012 Syst Bot 37:738--757; Simpson et al. 2013 Madroño 60:24--34; Mabry et al. 2016 Phytotaxa 253:97--130; Simpson & Kelley 2017 Phytotaxa 295:227--236; Simpson et al. 2017 Taxon 66:1406--1420; Mabry & Simpson 2018 Syst Bot 43:53--76; Simpson & Rebman 2021 Phytotaxa 509:185--210; Simpson & Rebman 2022 Madroño 69: in press.
Species: Cryptantha clevelandiiView Description 


Habit: Plant 10--50 cm, generally erect, slender. Stem: branches generally throughout, ascending to spreading, strigose, sometimes also spreading stiff-bristly. Leaf: 1--4 cm, scattered, reduced distally on stem, +- linear to linear-lanceolate, hairs sparsely appressed soft-bristly, midvein, margin fine-bristly. Inflorescence: cymes in 1s or 2s; bracts generally 0; pedicel 0--0.5 mm. Flower: calyx 1.5--2.5 mm, (2.5--)3--4.5 mm and erect to spreading in fruit, deciduous, cylindrical to ovoid, lobes erect, linear, midvein with few conspicuous bristle-like hairs at base, hairs < 3 mm. Fruit: nutlets 1.5--2 mm, lance-ovate, not flattened, generally mottled, +- smooth, +- shiny, adaxially +- flattened, abaxially convex, not round in ×-section basally, base +- rounded to narrow-truncate, margin rounded, tip +- acuminate; abaxially low-rounded, ridge 0; adaxially +- flat, attachment scar edges abutted, forked at base, occasionally gapped; style extended generally 2/3 to 9/10 nutlet length.
Note: Cryptantha abramsii likely only represents plants with occasional, scattered flower bracts within the cymes. Plants from the northern Channel Islands that have been called Cryptantha brandegeei, with generally prostrate stems and occasional, scattered flower bracts, possibly warranting taxonomic recognition at some rank.
Cryptantha clevelandii Greene var. clevelandii
NATIVE
Leaf: hairs sparse, appressed, midvein, margin fine-bristly. Inflorescence: cymes in 1s or 2s; bracts generally 0; pedicel 0--0.5 mm, erect. Flower: calyx (2.5--)3--4 mm, erect-appressed to axis in fruit, cylindrical, lobes linear, midvein with few conspicuous bristles at base; corolla limb 1--2.5 mm diam, appendages pale yellow. Fruit: nutlets generally 1 or 2.
Ecology: Loamy or sandy soils, slopes, generally sedimentary based substrates, occasionally serpentine (San Luis Obispo Co.), grassland, coastal scrub; Elevation: 50--150(230) m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, s ChI; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: May intergrade with C. clevelandii var. florosa in corolla dimensions, calyx orientation, and nutlet number; requires further study. A form with +- entirely strigose stems, some populations on serpentine, occurs in mostly coastal Southwestern California, possibly warranting taxonomic recognition.
Jepson eFlora Author: Michael G. Simpson, Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman, Makenzie E. Mabry, and Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Michael G. Simpson, Kristen E. Hasenstab-Lehman, Makenzie E. Mabry, and Ronald B. Kelley 2021, Cryptantha clevelandii var. clevelandii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 9, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=57118, accessed on July 04, 2022.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora, https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on July 04, 2022.

No expert verified images found for Cryptantha clevelandii var. clevelandii.



Geographic subdivisions for Cryptantha clevelandii var. clevelandii:
SCo, s ChI
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
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