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Vascular Plants of California
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Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornament, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: CorallorhizaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CORALROOT
Habit: Plant +- scapose, brown, tan, +- pink, +- red, +- purple, (+- green); rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like. Flower: sepals +- alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base, mentum present or not; lateral petals spreading or curved toward lip, lip not spurred, entire to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed; column generally convex adaxially, concave abaxially, curved over lip. Fruit: pendent.
Etymology: (Greek: coral root)
Species: Corallorhiza maculataView Description 

Habit: Plant 17--55 cm. Stem: red to yellow-brown to yellow. Flower: sepals 5.5--10 mm, lower spreading, color generally same as stems, mentum < 2.5 mm; lateral petals generally like sepals, yellow-brown or deep pink to red, dark-spotted or not, lip 5--7 mm, with 2 rounded lobes laterally, white, unspotted or generally red- to purple-spotted, tip crenate or toothed; column 3--5 mm, +- yellow, purple-spotted. Fruit: 15--20 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=42.
Note: Where together, Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis typically flowers 2--4 weeks earlier than Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata.
Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf. var. occidentalis (Lindl.) Ames
Inflorescence: flower bracts generally 1--2.8 mm, often forked. Flower: lip widening to tip.
Ecology: Shaded mixed-evergreen or conifer forest, in decomposing leaf litter; Elevation: < 2800 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN (exc Teh), SnFrB, SCoRO, SnGb, SnBr, PR, MP, W&I; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, southeastern Canada, southeastern United States, New Mexico. Flowering Time: Feb--Aug
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2012, Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 10, 2023.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2023, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 10, 2023.

Corallorhiza maculata  
var. occidentalis
click for enlargement
©2016 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata  
var. occidentalis
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata  
var. occidentalis
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata  
var. occidentalis
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse
Corallorhiza maculata  
var. occidentalis
click for enlargement
©2017 Keir Morse

More photos of Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis
in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis:
NW, CaR, SN (exc Teh), SnFrB, SCoRO, SnGb, SnBr, PR, MP, W&I
1. You can change the display of the base map layer control box in the upper right-hand corner.
2. County and Jepson Region polygons can be turned off and on using the check boxes.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time (fruiting time in some monocot genera).